WHY ARE SOME PIANOS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN OTHERS?
The simple answer is because high quality pianos are more expensive to manufacture than lesser quality instruments.
Selection of Materials:
The finest materials---top grade spruce, wool felt, expensive hard
rock maple, veneers, and all the components that go into the making of
a piano --- will affect the end result. The makers of more expensive
instruments take great care in selecting and handling their materials
consistent with the quality of that instrument.
Preperation of Materials:
Proper seasoning of woods is time-consuming and costly. First the
wood must be air-dried for a period of time, and then placed in kilns
to stabilize it to specific moisture contents. Through this process,
better instrument manufactuers do to great lengths to ensure the
quality and long life of their pianos.
There is no substitute for quality workmanship. The more skilled the
workers are, the better the piano. remember that the better the tools,
the better the piano as well. There are some jobs that machines can
accomplish better than even the most skilled workman might with years
A beautifully balanced scale is the result of the work of a master
scale designer. Scales tend to evolve and be refined over a period of
time. Manufactuerers of the finest pianos constantly strive to find
ways to make their scales' designs even better.
The back of a vertical piano, or the bottom in the case of a grand,
is the piano's foundation, and must be strong and stable to withstand
the tons of "pull" exerted by the strings. Although the strings are
mounted on steel, this is the reason for the vertical's back posts, or
in a grand, the braces underneath the piano.
The soundboard is the heart of the piano. It is one of the most
important, yet least understood, parts of the instrument. Its purpose
is to convert the vibrations of the strings into what we know as piano
tone. Without it there would be no amplification, and we would hear
little if naything. If the soundboard is not made of the proper kind of
wood, if its size, thickness, crown (curvature), grain direction,
texture and other factors are not in balance, the end result will be
unacceptable tone, texture, and sustaining quality.
Spruce is the species of wood that nearly all manufacturers of top
quality pianos use for their soundboards. there are several grades of
spruce. the very highest fine grain quality is expensive and is used in
the top quality pianos.
It should be noted that other woods, even plywood, have been used
for soundboards over the years, and can still be found in lesser
quality instruemnts. However, the fact that the long, even grain of a
solid spruce soundboard transmits and amplifies piano sound the best.
A critical step in the making of fine quality piano is the shaping
and fitting of the bridges. The bass and treble bridges must be planed
to exact thickness from end to end and fitted securely to the
soundboard. Absolute accuracty is paramount so as to provide the proper
down-bearing of the strings upon the bridges. It is this correct
down-bearing which is so vital for the transfer of the string
vibrations to the soundboard (resulting in the fine tonal quality from
the lowest bass string to the highest treble.)
The Pin Block:
The pin block is a laminated hardwood plank running the width of the
piano and attached to the back frame. Embedded in holes in the pin
block are the steel tuning pins around which is coiled one end of a
piano string. The pin block has to hold the tuning pins tight enough,
by friction alone, so that all the strings are maintained at the
correct tension without unwinding ---thus keeping the piano in tune.
The durability of its pin block is important to the longevity or
"life" of the piano. Defective pin blocks can be replaced on grand
pianos (at great expense), however, it is nearly impossible to replace
a vertical piano's pin block.
Pin blocks come in several different varieties, which differr in the
number of laminations they contain (from four to nearly fifty.) There
is no particular advantage to many multiple lamination. The single most
important thing is that the pin block is properly designed and the
holes are drilled accurately. Hard rock maple is the material of choice
in high quality pianos.
Properly designed pin blocks made with well-seasoned woods will
often last the life of the piano if kepth in proper climactic
conditions. Loose pins are usually a result of a poor pin block or
excessive dryness over a period of time.
The Piano Plate:
The piano plate or string frame is made of fine gray cast iron, to
the individual manuyfacturer's specifications and scale design. The
plate, along with the back frame to which it is attached, is the
foundational strength to resist the tons of string tension placed upon
it. The construction of the plate has been greatly refined.
Most pianos have three pedals, but occasionally you see some with
just two pedals. Today's two-pedal pianos are usually pianos
manufactured and sold outside of the United States.
Grands: The right pedal, called the damper or sustaining pedal, operates on the grand piano just the same as in the vertical piano. It lifts the dampers from the strings and allows all the strings to sound until the pedal is releaseed. This is the pedal that is used most frequently.
The left pedal is called the "una corda" pedal. When depressed, the entire action and keyboard is shifted slightly to on side so that the hammers only strike two strings rather than the three strings per note. This sligthly changes the character of the sound, as well as makes the piano sound a little softer.
The middle pedal on a grand piano functions in one of two ways. on some pianos it functions as a bass sustain. On others, the middle pedal is the "sostenuto" pedal. When depressed, it will sustain a single note or individual chord without affecting the rest of the keyboard. While this pedal is almost exclusively found on grands, very high quality uprights are equipped with a true sostenuto pedal as well.
Verticals: The right pedal
is the same as that of a grand piano. The left pedal is the soft pedal.
When depressed, it moves all the hammers close to the strings so the
stroke is shortened, resulting in a softer sound. The middle
pedal on a vertical piano is often a bass sustaining pedal. When
depressed it lifts off the dampers in the bass section. On some
vertical pianos the middle pedal is a "practice" pedal or "muting"
pedal. When it is depressed, a thin strip of felt is lowered between
the hammer and the strings, which muffles the sound to a very low level.
Piano construction begins with the scale design. Reduced to simple
terms, the scale is the physical layout of the strings and other
components, which produce or affect the sound and tone quality of the
piano. The scale designer must consider: the speaking length of the
string; the guage, or wire size of each string; the tension, in pounds,
to which each string is drawn when it is tuned to exact pitch; and the
guage of the pure copper winding of the bass strings. All of the
factors are interdependent. One cannot be changed without affecting all
of the others. Differences in scale design give different pianos the
own special tonal qualities or personalities. A designer strives to
keep all of these elements in place.
Ifa ll of these factors are in proper relationship to one another,
we have harmony, and the result is an excellent foundation upon which a
quality piano may be built. Scale designers are the tonal architects of
Keys and Action:Each key is mounted on a key frame. Key frames are located in exact position by center pins, which are at the balance point of the key. Quality pianos have weighted and balanced keys for consistency of touch and weight throughout the entire range of the keyboard.
Ivory has not been used for the key tops for over 40 years. Today,
piano manufactureres use more modern composition materials, which give
the keys their appearance and durability required. The white keys will
never yellow, nor will they crack, split, or chip.(Some manufacturer's
technical expertise allows them to use materials that nearly duplicate
ivory's ability to absorb moisture and remain soft and warm to the
Now let's discuss the action---the business end of the piano. this
section of the piano consists of nearly 1500 parts and causes the
hammer to strike the strings when the keys are struck. Most parts of a
piano are traditionally made of hard northern maple or modern composite
materials. In addition, several kinds of pure wool felt and bushing
cloth, leather, steel, brass, nickel, glue, plus many hours of work, go
into the making of today's piano action.
"Strike the key and the hammer strikes the string" is a greatly
over-simplified description of what goes on in a piano action. The
hammer not only must strike the string almost instantaneously; it must
also strike at an exact point on each string. It must strike with the
exact amount of force required to produce volume ranging from
pianissimo (very very soft) to fortissimo (very very loud), and then
bring the hammer back into position, ready to repeat the process over
and over, at a very rapid rate.
The action must also provide damping of the strings, as well as
allow the tone to be sustained as long as the key is held down. There
can be no lost motion in the action, which would spoil the touch. It
must perform quietly and efficiently, with a minimum of maintenance
under adverse conditions, for many years.
Piano hammers are made of fine wool felt, which is formed around a
hardwood hammer molding. Most piano hammers are made of two layers of
felt; the outer layer is white--the inner layer may or may not be
To bring out the best in a piano, the hammer is the all-important
link. it's often said that while a good hammer can't make a poor piano
sound good, a bad hammer can spil the sound of the best piano. That's
why it is os important that the hammer be properly sized and voiced for
the scale of that particular piano.
Action Regulation and Voicing:
This is the final stage of the manufacturing of a piano. Piano
hammers, in spite of being made from the best wool obtainable, and
produced under exacting control will vary slightly in density and
hardness. This variance is corrected by the use of fine steel needles
inserted into the hammers at the proper place and the proper depth. By
"needling" a piano hammer, the tone reguator can make the tone of an
individual note sound hard, mellow, full or thin. This fine adjustment
is called voicing. The end result is tonal balance and an instrument
with a full rich tone.
Action regulation is done by skilled technicians at the factory, and
consists of minute adjustments throughout all the critcail points in
the actino to insure that each and every key and action assembly
performs exactly as it is designed to do to ensure evenness throughout
the full range of the keyboard.
The finest piano manufactureres spend a great deal of time and
attention to this process with their skilled regulators and voicers.
Manufactuerrs of lesser quality pianos spend very little time in the
voicing and regulating process.
Final preperation of the piano before it leaves the factory is one
of the many differences between pianos of differing quality. In the
factory, final preperation of the piano includes such things as several
tunings, action regulation, and voicing. And finally, before delivery,
preperation by the dealer's technicians of the instrument should be
done to ensure that the piano is at its very best when it arrives at
Approximately 85% of every acoustic piano is amde of wood, and a
good portion of that wood is the piano cabinetry. Exquisite furniture
and finishes have long been associated with the fine art of piano
building. for most piano buyers, the style of cabintry and wood finish
is an important consideration. From period styles to contemporary,
there is sure to be a finish and style that will work with your
individual decorating tastes.
Historically, piano cabinets have used the solid core construction,
and some still do today. However, plywood and fiberboard are no
commonly used throughout the industry.
Legs, molding, and various trim pieces are usually solid wood. On
good quality pianos they are of the same wood species as the rest of
the piano's cabinet.
While elaborate cabinets with carvings, molding, and rich styling
features are more expensive than simple plain cabinets, within the same
brand and model there is no difference in the quality of the
instruemnt. Proper seasoning of the woods used and the application of a
long lasting finish will ensure the beatuy and stability of the cabinet
for its many years of service.