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The Vocabulary of Critical Thinking offers an innovative way to improve students' thinking skills. It begins at a practical level by helping students master the crucial terms that are the building blocks of critical thinking--terms such as "generalization," "inferring," "to confirm," "justifying," "assumption," and others. The book provides hundreds of short, accessible readings that illustrate the concepts and related thinking skills. It explains in a step-by-step fashion how students can perform the specific skills themselves. Organized around nine basic skills--including comparing, generalizing, inferring, judging sources, experimenting, making value judgments, defining terms, assuming, and thinking creatively-- The Vocabulary of Critical Thinking walks students through definitions, explanations, and applications of 108 words. Each chapter is comprised of four parts. The first part establishes a solid foundation by defining six or seven words related to one skill. The second part gives interesting real-world examples (from books and newspapers) that illustrate the concepts. The third part includes exercises allowing students to analyze a writer's arguments and thinking. Finally, each chapter ends with writing exercises that help students use a particular skill in their own writing. As students learn specific definitions of such terms as "analogy," "sample," and "hypothesis," they will gain a better understanding of how writers use the terms. By studying the words in context, along with author Phil Washburn's commentary and questions, they will come to understand such vital types of thinking as assessing sources, determining causes, and recognizing fallacies. Students will improve their competence gradually, without being intimidated by abstract rules and technical terms. Enhanced by numerous study questions, exercises, arguments for analysis, and writing tasks, The Vocabulary of Critical Thinking also features drawings, photographs, and an annotated bibliography. Ideal for courses in critical thinking and reasoning, it can also be used in a variety of courses on writing, the humanities, interdisciplinary topics, study skills, and college preparation.
The Vocabulary of Critical Thinking takes an innovative, practical, and accessible approach to teaching critical thinking and reasoning skills. With the underlying notion that a good way to practice fundamental reasoning skills is to learn to name them, the text explores one hundred and eightwords that are important to know and employ within any discipline. These words are about comparing, generalizing, explaining, inferring, judging sources, evaluating, referring, assuming, and creating - actions used to assess relationships and arguments - and the words are grouped according to theseand other concepts essential to critical thinking. Featuring five or more words and an introduction on how they are related, each chapter is organized into three parts. Part I includes definitions of the words, brief examples of their use, and a matching exercise. To further contextualize the words,Part II, Understanding the Meaning, provides numerous real-world examples, with commentary, of the words in use. Finally, Part III, Applying the Words, offers opportunities to employ the words in exercises and writing tasks, further enhancing understanding and providing practice of the associatedcritical thinking skills. Questions also appear throughout the chapters to encourage reflection and to highlight important points. Thirty-five photographs and illustrations additionally enrich the text.The book is an ideal text for critical thinking and reasoning courses as well as a variety of courses that prepare students to succeed in college: Freshman Orientation, Developing Study Skills, etc.
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Table Of Content
PrefaceIntroductionPart 1: Comparing1. to compare2. to contrast3. to distinguish4. analogy5. metaphor6. modelPart 2: Generalizing7. to generalize8. sample9. stereotype10. to classify11. criterionPart 3: Reasoning12. statement13. argument14. conclusion15. evidence16. to infer17. reason18. reasoningPart 4: Fact and Opinion19. fact20. opinion21. to confirm22. source23. critical24. premisePart 5: Reliable Sources25. reliable26. first-hand27. expert28. credentials29. consensus30. objective31. to fabricatePart 6: Degrees of Belief32. possible33. probable34. plausible35. convincing36. certain37. skeptical38. dogmaticPart 7: Cause and Effect39. immediate cause40. remote cause41. contributing factor42. coincidence43. necessary condition44. sufficient conditionPart 8: Scientific Thinking45. hypothesis46. experiment47. variables48. controlled experiment49. a study50. correlationPart 9: Explaining51. to explain52. theory53. to predict54. story55. motive56. susperstitionPart 10: Valuing57. to value58. priority59. goal60. means and ends61. principle62. to evaluate63. to recommendPart 11: Justifying64. standard65. to justify66. prejudice67. impartial68. conflict of interest69. universal70. relativePart 12: Types of Reasoning71. to imply72. to support73. to suggest74. to prove75. to refute76. to deducePart 13: Mistakes in Reasoning77. fallacy78. propaganda79. irrelevant80. to rationalize81. slippery slope82. ad hominem83. false dilemma84. to beg the questionPart 14: Meaning85. to refer86. to mean87. concept88. to define89. connotation90. abstractPart 15: Problems with Language91. ambiguous92. vague93. loaded term94. to characterize95. rhetoric96. ironyPart 16: Assuming97. to assume98. point of view99. context100. to intrepret101. inconsistent102. to contradictPart 17: Creative Thinking103. creative104. association105. brainstorming106. stimulus107. fantasy108. to modifyFor Further StudyIndex