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Details about  VINTAGE Original ISRAEL Propaganda POSTER Zionist SABRA Children PLANE SHIP

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VINTAGE Original ISRAEL Propaganda POSTER Zionist SABRA Children PLANE SHIP
VINTAGE-Original-ISRAEL-Propaganda-POSTER-Zionist-SABRA-Children-PLANE-SHIP
Item Sold
Item condition:
--not specified
Ended:
Dec 14, 2011
Price:
US $65.00
Best offer accepted  
This item was listed in the fixed price format with a Best Offer option. The seller accepted a Best Offer price.
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$15.00 Economy Shipping from outside US | See details
Item location:
TEL AVIV, Israel

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eBay item number:
270828659079
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.

DESCRIPTION
: Here for sale is a quite RARE and ORIGINAL vintage JEWISH-HEBREW colorful ZIONIST poster  , Which was issued 20 years ago , In 1990 ( Dated ) , in Israel By the KKL- JNF to advertise and praise the CHARMS of ERETZ ISRAEL and encourage IMMIGRATION - ALIYA to the land of the TZABAR ( Sabra ).  The POSTER consists of the slogan " BEING HAPPY in the LAND of the TZABAR (SABRA) " , Written on the background of a NAIVELY ILLUSTRATED children illustration of HAPPY ISRAELI figures in a flying AEROPLANE and SAILING SHIP under a shining ISRAELI SUN. Printed on thick chromo . Poster dimensions are around 19" x 25" . Excellent pristine condition.  ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube.
 
AUTHENTICITYThe poster is fully guaranteed ORIGINAL from 1990 ( Dated ) , NOT a reproduction , It holds life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.

PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : PAYPAL .

SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $15 . Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube.

 

From WIKIPDIA
:  Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael (KKL) was established on December 29, 1901 (9 Tevet 5562) at the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basle. To raise funds for it, Haim Kleinman, a bank clerk from Nadvorna, Galicia, soon placed a box in his office and sent off a letter to Die Welt, the Zionist newspaper in Vienna, notifying it accordingly:  "In keeping with the saying, 'bit and bitty fill the kitty' and following the Congress resolution on KKL's founding, I put together an 'Erez Israel box', stuck the words 'National Fund' on it and placed it in a prominent spot in my office. The results, given the extent of the experiment so far, have been astonishing. I suggest that like-minded people, and particularly all Zionist officials, collect contributions to KKL in this way."     The rest is history – for dozens of years a Blue Box could be seen in almost every Diaspora home and every Jewish institution in Erez Israel and abroad: a cherished, popular means to realize the Zionist vision of establishing a state for the Jewish People. The funds raised through it (the "pushke," as it was widely known) were an instrument to redeem the land in Erez Israel on which the Jewish home was to rise. But the Blue Box was more than just a fundraising device. From the beginning, it was an important educational vehicle spreading the Zionist word and forging the bond between the Jewish People and their ancient homeland. The Blue Box has changed form many times over the years and often wasn't even blue. It is a symbol. A symbol of KKL-JNF and its efforts to develop the land of Israel, plant forests, create parks, prepare soil for agriculture and settlement, carve out new roads and build water reservoirs. A symbol of connectedness with the land.  A collection of KKL-JNF Blue Boxes is presented in our Educational Center and Museum in Tel-Aviv.   KKL-JNF Blue Boxes are available for a nominal contribution  If you are interested in obtaining one, please contact  The photos are taken from the KKL-JNF Blue Box Exhibition prepared in co-operation with Prof. Shaul Hadani .  A bereavement box found in 1989 in a synagogue in Jerusalem's Old City's Jewish Quarter. Weight: 25 kg.    KKL-JNF – Trustee for the Jewish People on its land   For the first time since the State of Israel was founded, the High Court of Justice has been required to consider petitions that de-legitimize the Jewish People’s continued ownership of KKL-JNF lands. These petitions are, in fact, directed against the fundamental principles on which KKL-JNF was founded and in accordance with which it has acquired land and managed it for the past hundred years, up to the present day. The petitions constitute a demand to deprive KKL-JNF – which serves as trustee for the lands of the Jewish People – of the right to make use of these lands for the continuation of the Zionist enterprise in the Land of Israel.  A survey commissioned by KKL-JNF reveals that over 70% of the Jewish population in Israel opposes allocating KKL-JNF land to non-Jews, while over 80% prefer the definition of Israel as a Jewish state, rather than as the state of all its citizens. The following is KKL-JNF’s response to the petitions that have been submitted to the Supreme Court in connection with the case regarding its rights over lands acquired for and by the Jewish People. The Perpetual Property of the Jewish People  In 1901 the Fifth Zionist Congress met in Basel. The Zionist Movement, under the leadership of its visionary leader, Dr. Binyamin Zeev Herzl, progressed from the declaratory to the practical stage of its activities: redeeming land in Zion. The Congress established a Jewish National Fund to act as purchaser of lands that would be “the perpetual property of the Jewish People,” i.e. property that would never be expropriated from them      KKL-JNF was appointed trustee and custodian of this land on behalf of the Jewish People. These are not State lands. All KKL-JNF land has been legally purchased and paid for in full. Remember the little blue collection box? Tens of thousand of Jews all over the entire world used it for decades to save cent after cent. They did this so that these funds could be used to acquire land in the Land of Israel and so that this land could be maintained and prepared for use by the Jewish People. This means that KKL-JNF was a trustee on behalf of the Jewish People only. It was created for their sake, and it acts in their interests.KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.      KKL-JNF was appointed trustee and custodian of this land on behalf of the Jewish People  These are not State lands. All KKL-JNF land has been legally purchased and paid for in full. Remember the little blue collection box? Tens of thousand of Jews all over the entire world used it for decades to save cent after cent. They did this so that these funds could be used to acquire land in the Land of Israel and so that this land could be maintained and prepared for use by the Jewish People. This means that KKL-JNF was a trustee on behalf of the Jewish People only. It was created for their sake, and it acts in their interests.These are not State lands. All KKL-JNF land has been legally purchased and paid for in full. Remember the little blue collection box? Tens of thousand of Jews all over the entire world used it for decades to save cent after cent. They did this so that these funds could be used to acquire land in the Land of Israel and so that this land could be maintained and prepared for use by the Jewish People. This means that KKL-JNF was a trustee on behalf of the Jewish People only. It was created for their sake, and it acts in their interests  KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.     These are not State lands. All KKL-JNF land has been legally purchased and paid for in full. Remember the little blue collection box? Tens of thousand of Jews all over the entire world used it for decades to save cent after cent. They did this so that these funds could be used to acquire land in the Land of Israel and so that this land could be maintained and prepared for use by the Jewish People. This means that KKL-JNF was a trustee on behalf of the Jewish People only. It was created for their sake, and it acts in their interests. KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.   KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.  KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.  KKL-JNF was appointed trustee and custodian of this land on behalf of the Jewish People. These are not State lands. All KKL-JNF land has been legally purchased and paid for in full. Remember the little blue collection box? Tens of thousand of Jews all over the entire world used it for decades to save cent after cent. They did this so that these funds could be used to acquire land in the Land of Israel and so that this land could be maintained and prepared for use by the Jewish People. This means that KKL-JNF was a trustee on behalf of the Jewish People only. It was created for their sake, and it acts in their interests.KKL-JNF continued to perform this function after the State of Israel was founded, too. The distinction here is very clear: the State owns over 80% of Israel’s land. This land is available for use by all residents of the State, Jewish and non-Jewish alike. KKL-JNF owns over 10% of Israel’s land, and the rest is either in private hands or owned by public or religious bodies. The Muslim waqf, for example, holds about 3% of Israel’s land, and this is available for use only by Muslims.  All KKL-JNF land was paid for in full with money contributed by Jews all over the world.The issue of KKL-JNF land, which has been the subject of extensive debate recently, proves, unfortunately, that some people in this country have short memories. It is sad to see the unbearable ease with which people sling mud at an organization whose signature is all over the State and its history and which, for many people, constitutes a symbol of national unity. Zionism, which celebrated its hundredth anniversary a number of years ago, again finds itself rejected and under attack by people whose memories have simply let them down. Zionism is not the mark of Cain, and there is no reason why it has to justify itself again in a country that calls itself Jewish and democratic. On the contrary – Zionism and its objectives continue to play a central role in the ideological infrastructure of the State. This is a Jewish State that belongs to the Jewish People and serves as a Jewish center, and it is also the State of all its citizens. The State may be under an obligation to treat all its citizens equally before the law. Equality is in the interests of Jews and Arabs alike. This common interest makes it incumbent upon the Jewish majority to allow minorities to integrate into the life of the State. The non-Jewish minority, for its part, has to acknowledge that Israel is a Jewish state and understand that the struggle for equal rights does not entail abrogating the definition of Israel as a Jewish state. Just as the majority respects the symbols of the minority, so must the minority respect those of the majority. There is no contradiction between the State’s obligation to set a land-use policy based on equality as far as State land is concerned, and the right of the Jewish People to safeguard its assets, which, as we mentioned earlier, have become an essential symbol of its unity.  A state is obliged to abide by the principle of equality but a people does not give up its assets. KKL-JNF is an organization that belongs to the Jewish People and it serves as its trustee for land purchased over the course of a hundred years with money contributed by Jews in Israel and throughout the world. This money was dropped cent by cent into the little blue box. The State of Israel officially recognized KKL-JNF’s unique role in the covenant it signed with the organization in 1961, which granted KKL-JNF special independent status, and thus its ownership of its lands is independent of and separate from the State. KKL-JNF’s main objective, which is mentioned both in the covenant and in its company regulations, is Jewish settlement – on KKL-JNF land, of course. This goal is a direct extension of the Law of Return, which also applies only to Jews, and it is designed to strengthen the Jewish State.  KKL-JNF belongs to the Jewish People. It came into being at the Zionist Congress and united Diaspora Jews from all over the world. For 2000 years Jews lived scattered in exile, with no property rights and no safe haven, at the mercy of anti-Semitism, massacres, expulsions, riots, pogroms, injustice and discrimination. The establishment of the State of Israel was intended to right the historical injustice perpetrated against the Jewish People. Every nation deserves to have a country of its own, the Jewish People included. In the sixth decade of its existence, the State of Israel is still in a process of formation.  A state in the process of formation has a moral right to take extraordinary measures to ensure its future existence. The Law of Return and specially designated use of the land owned by the Jewish People are two examples of such measures, and their moral admissibility cannot be called into question. Therefore, we must not be ashamed of our ownership of land designated for the purpose of Jewish settlement. The Jewish People has a right to its own land within the Jewish State.    The petitions submitted to the High Court of Justice recently seek to remove KKL-JNF lands from the ownership of the Jewish People and turn them into State land like any other. In other words, the petitioners want the State of Israel to turn its back on KKL-JNF land’s role in the service of the Jewish People over the generations. Dr. Herzl, when he envisioned the Jewish State, most certainly never imagined that one hundred years later that State’s High Court of Justice would be called upon to express an opinion on the constitutional legitimacy of KKL-JNF’s ownership of its lands as the trustee of the Jewish People. The existence of land reserves held by the Jewish People in perpetuity and used for purposes of Jewish settlement is a fundamental part of our legal system. If the Jewish State does not permit a Zionist organization to own land and designate it for purposes of developing Jewish settlement, what is the point of its existence? All land owned by KKL-JNF was paid for in full with money contributed by Jews all over the worl  KKL-JNF owns approximately 2.5 million dunam of land (one dunam equals around a quarter of an acre). About one million dunam were acquired by KKL-JNF by means of money contributed by Jews all over the world before the State of Israel was founded. Another million and a quarter dunam of land were purchased by KKL-JNF in the early years of the State and paid for in full, again by means of donations from Jews throughout the world. These were regular property deals in every way, on the strength of which full and complete ownership of this land passed into the hands of KKL-JNF, and the State has no part in it or right of possession over it. State-owned land, as we pointed out before, must be at the disposal of all citizens. But land owned by KKL-JNF is the property of the Jewish People and is designated for the attainment of its following objectives: ensuring the existence of a Jewish State and strengthening, developing and preserving the Jewish character of that State. The historical facts have fallen victim to those who promote a "post-Zionist" agenda. These people believe that Israel was presented to the Jewish People on a silver platter, and that the curtain has come down on everything that happened in the past. Unfortunately, however, the struggle to establish the State of Israel as a Jewish state in the Middle East is not over: it has yet to allow Israel to live in peace with its neighbors and enjoy official recognition of its Jewish character. KKL-JNF and its lands are a cornerstone of this struggle.   KKL-JNF – A Green Glob -JNF’s extensive activities are carried out in the name of the Jewish People for the benefit of the public as a whole and for all sectors of its population, whatever their religion or ethnicity. These activities include strengthening peripheral communities, acting as custodian for national land and preserving its beauties, conserving the landscape and nature, improving the environment and raising the public’s level of ecological awareness for the sake of future generations. Since its foundation in 1901, KKL-JNF: Planted more than 220 million treeMaintains 40,000 hectares (100,000 acres) of natural woodlanRedeemed 280,000 hectares (700,000) acres of lanReclaimed 100,000 hectares (250,000 acres) of land for farming in 1000 rural communities.Forged 7000 kilometers of roads & forest trails.Prepared infrastructure for thousands of new homes.Developed more than 600 recreation areas, many of them accessible to the disabled.Built of 175 water reservoirs for water conservation and recyclingRehabilitates rivers and other water sources.Restores archeological and historical sites.Educates  hundreds of thousands of young people in Israel and worldwide.Supports and implemented R&D projects with global implications.Promotes love of Israel and its environment, creating an enduring bond between people and the land.Improves the environment throughout the country and fights global warmingCombats desertification - pushing back the boundaries of the desert *****
Jewish immigration in the 20th century greatly altered the settlement pattern of the country. The first modern-day Jewish settlers established themselves on the coastal plain in the 1880s. Later they also moved into the valleys of the interior and into parts of the hill districts, as well as into the Negev. Small cities such as Haifa and Jerusalem grew in size, and the port of Jaffa (Yafo) sprouted a suburb, Tel Aviv, which grew into the largest city in Israel. Jewish immigrants also settled those areas of the coastal plain, the Judaean foothills, and the Jordan and ʿArava valleys evacuated by Palestinians during the war of 1948, thereby becoming the majority in many areas previously inhabited by Arabs.      *********   Israel (Hebrew: ‎, Yisra'el; Arabic: إسرائيل‎, Isrā'īl) officially the State of Israel Hebrew :מְדִינַת יִשְרָאֵל , Medinat Yisra'el; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ إِسْرَائِيل‎, Dawlat Isrā'īl), is a country in Western Asia located on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan in the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. The West Bank and Gaza Strip are also adjacent. With a population of about 7.28 million, the majority of whom are Jews, Israel is the world's only Jewish state. It is also home to other ethnic groups, including most numerously Arab citizens of Israel, as well as many religious groups including Muslims, Christians, Druze, Samaritans and others.The modern state of Israel has its roots in the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael), a concept central to Judaism for over 3,000 years, and the heartland of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to which modern Jews are usually attributed. After World War I, the League of Nations approved the British Mandate of Palestine with the intent of creating a "national home for the Jewish people." In 1947, the United Nations approved the partition of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. On May 14, 1948 the state of Israel declared independence and this was followed by a war with the surrounding Arab states, which refused to accept the plan. The Israelis were subsequently victorious in a series of wars confirming their independence and expanding the borders of the Jewish state beyond those in the UN Partition Plan. Since then, Israel has been in conflict with many of the neighboring Arab countries, resulting in several major wars and decades of violence that continue to this day. Since its foundation, Israel's boundaries and even the State's very right to exist have been subject to dispute, especially among its Arab neighbors. Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, and efforts are being made to reach a permanent accord with the Palestinians.Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system and universal suffrage. The Prime Minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's legislative body. In terms of nominal gross domestic product, the nation's economy is estimated as being the 44th-largest in the world. Israel ranks high among Middle Eastern countries on the bases of human development, freedom of the press, and economic competitiveness. Jerusalem is the country's capital, seat of government, and largest city, while Israel's main financial center is Tel Aviv. *********  The Land of Israel, known in Hebrew as Eretz Yisrael, has been sacred to the Jewish people since Biblical times. According to the Torah, the Land of Israel was promised to the three Patriarchs of the Jewish people, by God, as their homeland; scholars have placed this period in the early 2nd millennium BCE. According to the traditional view, around the 11th century BCE, the first of a series of Israelite kingdoms and states established rule over the region; these Israelite kingdoms and states ruled intermittently for the following one thousand years. The sites holiest to Judaism are located within Israel.Between the time of the Israelite kingdoms and the 7th-century Muslim conquests, the Land of Israel fell under Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Sassanian, and Byzantine rule. Jewish presence in the region dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE and the resultant large-scale expulsion of Jews. In 628/9, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius conducted a massacre and expulsion of the Jews, at which point the Jewish population probably reached its lowest point. Nevertheless, a continuous Jewish presence in the Land of Israel remained. Although the main Jewish population shifted from the Judea region to the Galilee, the Mishnah and part of the Talmud, among Judaism's most important religious texts, were composed in Israel during this period. The Land of Israel was captured from the Byzantine Empire around 636 CE during the initial Muslim conquests. Control of the region transferred between the Umayyads, Abbasids, and Crusaders over the next six centuries, before falling in the hands of the Mamluk Sultanate, in 1260. In 1516, the Land of Israel became a part of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the region until the 20th century.Jews living in the Diaspora have long aspired to return to Zion and the Land of Israel. That hope and yearning was articulated in the Bible, and is a central theme in the Jewish prayer book. Beginning in the 12th century, Catholic persecution of Jews led to a steady stream leaving Europe to settle in the Holy Land, increasing in numbers after Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. During the 16th century large communities struck roots in the Four Holy Cities, and in the second half of the 18th century, entire Hasidic communities from eastern Europe settled in the Holy Land.The first large wave of modern immigration, known as the First Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה), began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. While the Zionist movement already existed in theory, Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism, a movement which sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, by elevating the Jewish Question to the international plane In 1896, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), offering his vision of a future state; the following year he presided over the first World Zionist Congress.The Second Aliyah (1904–1914), began after the Kishinev pogrom. Some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine. Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews, but those in the Second Aliyah included socialist pioneers who established the kibbutz movement. During World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour issued what became known as the Balfour Declaration, which "view[ed] with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." The Jewish Legion, a group of battalions composed primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. Arab opposition to the plan led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of the Jewish organization known as the Haganah (meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew), from which the Irgun and Lehi split off.In 1922, the League of Nations granted the United Kingdom a mandate over Palestine for the express purpose of "placing the country under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home". The population of the area at this time was predominantly Muslim Arab, while the largest urban area in the region, Jerusalem, was predominantly Jewish.Jewish immigration continued with the Third Aliyah (1919–1923) and Fourth Aliyah (1924–1929), which together brought 100,000 Jews to Palestine. In the wake of the Jaffa riots in the early days of the Mandate, the British restricted Jewish immigration and territory slated for the Jewish state was allocated to Transjordan. The rise of Nazism in the 1930s led to the Fifth Aliyah, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. This influx resulted in the Arab revolt of 1936–1939 and led the British to cap immigration with the White Paper of 1939. With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine. By the end of World War II, Jews accounted for 33% of the population of Palestine, up from 11% in 1922.After 1945 the United Kingdom became embroiled in an increasingly violent conflict with the Jews. In 1947, the British government withdrew from commitment to the Mandate of Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews. The newly created United Nations approved the UN Partition Plan (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181) on November 29, 1947, dividing the country into two states, one Arab and one Jewish. Jerusalem was to be designated an international city – a corpus separatum – administered by the UN to avoid conflict over its status. The Jewish community accepted the plan, but the Arab League and Arab Higher Committee rejected it. The day after the UN decision fighting began between the Arabs and Jews of Palestine.On May 14, 1948, the day before the end of the British Mandate, the Jewish Agency proclaimed independence, naming the country Israel. The following day five Arab countries – Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq  – invaded Israel, launching the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.  Morocco, Sudan, Yemen and Saudi Arabia also sent troops to assist the invaders. After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were established. Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11, 1949. During the war 711,000 Arabs, according to UN estimates, or about 80% of the previous Arab population, fled the country. The fate of the Palestinian refugees today is a major point of contention in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics.These years were marked by mass immigration of Holocaust survivors and an influx of Jews persecuted in Arab lands. The population of Israel rose from 800,000 to two million between 1948 and 1958. Most arrived as refugees with no possessions and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot. By 1952, over 200,000 immigrants were living in these tent cities. The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea of Israel "doing business" with Germany.During the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. In 1956, Israel joined a secret alliance with The United Kingdom and France aimed at recapturing the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized (see the Suez Crisis). Despite capturing the Sinai Peninsula, Israel was forced to retreat due to pressure from the United States and the Soviet Union in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights in the Red Sea and the Canal.At the start of the following decade, Israel captured Adolf Eichmann, an architect of the Final Solution hiding in Argentina, and brought him to trial.The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust, and to date Eichmann remains the only person executed by Israel, although John Demjanjuk was sentenced to die before his conviction was overturned by the Supreme Court of Israel. ********* The Israeli Declaration of Independence (Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות‎, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or Hebrew: מגילת העצמאותMegilat HaAtzma'ut), made on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar, 5708), the day the British Mandate expired, was the official announcement that the new Jewish state named the State of Israel had been formally established in parts of what was known as the British Mandate for Palestine and on land where, in antiquity, the Kingdoms of Israel, Judah and Judea had once been.It has been called the start of the "Third Jewish Commonwealth" by some observers. The "First Jewish Commonwealth" ended with the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 586 BCE, the second with the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, and the crushing of Bar Kokhba's revolt by the Roman Empire in the year 135.In Israel the event is celebrated annually with the national holiday Yom Ha'atzmaut (Hebrew: יום העצמאות‎, lit. Independence Day), the timing of which is based on the Hebrew calendar date of the declaration (5, Iyar, 5708). Palestinias commemorate the event as Nakba Day (Arabic: يوم النكبة‎, Yawm al-nakba, lit. Catastrophe Day) on 15 May every year.The General Assembly of the United Nations had resolved that 'No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the ground of race, religion, language or sex.' and that a declaration to that effect would be made to the United Nations by the Provisional Government of each proposed State before independence. The General Assembly resolution mandated that the stipulations contained in the Declaration were to be non-derogable, they were to be 'recognized as fundamental laws of the State and no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.' The Declaration did promise that the State of Israel would ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex, and guaranteed freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture. However, the Knesset maintains that declaration is neither a law nor an ordinary legal document.The Supreme Court of Israel has ruled that the guarantees were merely guiding principles, and that the Declaration is not a constitutional law making a practical ruling on the upholding or nullification of various ordinances and statutes. Whenever an explicit statutory measure of the Knesset leaves no room for doubt, it is honored even if inconsistent with the principles in the Declaration of Independence.While the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organisations since the late 19th century, it was not until 1917 and the Balfour declaration that the idea gained the official backing of a major power. The declaration stated that the British government supported the creation of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. In 1936 the Peel Commission suggested partitioning Mandate Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, though it was rejected as unworkable by the government and was at least partially to blame for the 1936-39 Arab revolt.In the face of increasing violence, the British handed the issue over to the United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a partition plan to divide Palestine between Jews and Arabs. The Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem, designated as an area to be administered by the UN. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, but rejected by much of the Arab populace. On 29 November 1947, the plan was put to a vote in the United Nations General Assembly The result was 33 to 13 in favour of the plan, with 10 abstentions. The Arab countries (all of which had opposed the plan) proposed to query the International Court of Justice on the competence of the General Assembly to partition a country against the wishes of the majority of its inhabitants, but were again defeated. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal from the territory (15 May 1948), though the UK refused to implement the plan, arguing it was unacceptable to both sides.****  A Zionist youth movement is an organization formed for Jewish children and adolescents for educational, social, and ideological development, including a belief in Jewish nationalism as represented in the State of Israel. Youth leaders in modern movements use informal education approaches to educate toward the movement's ideological goals History Most Zionist youth movements were established in Eastern Europe in the early twentieth century, desiring the national revival of the Jewish people in their own homeland, and soon formed an active and integral part of the Zionist movement. All emphasised aliyah (emigration to the Land of Israel) and community, with many also focussing on a return to nature. Blau-Weiss is considered to have been the first Zionist youth movement, established in Germany in 1912, and were inspired by the culture of outings and hikes prevalent in the German youth movement. Adopting an official Zionist platform in 1922, the movement stressed an agricultural way of life, leading many of its members to the Kibbutz movement in Mandatory Palestine. With the upsurge in European nationalism and anti-Semitism, pogroms in Eastern Europe and the barring of Jewish members from German youth groups incubated the Zionist national consciousness of the Jewish youth, appealing to their idealism. Youth movements played a considerable role in politics, Jewish education, community organisation and Zionism, particularly between the two world wars. Within Europe, they were the nucleus of the Jewish resistance movements in the ghettos and camps of the Holocaust. They also led the escape (Beriha) from Europe following the war, particularly to Palestine, where most surviving members settled. Many of Eastern Europe's movements established themselves as worldwide organisations, although these were less influential. Alumni in Palestine organised their movements there from the 1920s, with an emphasis on pioneering and personal fulfillment (hagshama atzmit). There they strengthened the settlement organisations, particularly building the Kibbutz movement and most affiliated with or established Israel's political parties. After Israel's establishment in 1948, some of the movements' roles, such as education, were taken on by the State. With the growth and development of the country, movements' aims have been adjusted, despite a lesser public interest in the pioneering ideals of earlier Zionism. In the Jewish diaspora, the nature of Zionist youth movements has varied in time and place. During periods when the general Zionist movement has been strong, such as that preceding the Six-Day War, movements have been particularly active. As well as acting towards Zionist causes, the movements have been seen as an important Jewish education and socialisation when it has not been otherwise available. Hence, with the development of stronger community structures, youth movements have often played a lesser role. Many youth, particularly in the large Jewish population of North America, have opted for Jewish social groups without ideological pursuits.Modern movements Zionist youth movements, both in Israel and the diaspora, continue to play a large role in community organisation, Jewish education, welfare, politics and activism. While upholding and adjusting their individual movement ideologies, diaspora movements commonly idealise Jewish continuity and identity in opposition to cultural assimilation, and Zionism in the way of an active community involvement while living in Israel (termed by some as aliyah nimshechet or continuing ascent), with importance placed upon leadership skills and personal development. In some countries, resistance in response to anti-Semitism is also a significant political focus. Movements generally focus on education for school-age youths, who are known as chanichim (Hebrew for educatees; singular chanich/a), approximately aged 8 to 18. The nucleus of movement leaders (madrichim, singular madrich/a; literally guides) are graduates (bogrim, singular boger/et) of the movement, although it is popular for senior chanichim to also lead junior groups. Much of a movement's activity is carried out through regular meetings or events, in many countries weekly, as well as camps one or more times a year. Leaders use methods of informal education to inspire and teach chanichim within a particular ideological framework, or to induce discussion and thought. Such events are also highly social and often involve recreational activity., making the educational and ideological pursuits more enjoyable for participating youths. Preparation (Hachshara) Most diaspora movements organise programmes in Israel, aiming for personal and ideological development, experience and training, such that participants would either remain in Israel as a form of ideological fulfillment, or return to their diaspora communities and movements in a leadership capacity. Many of these programs cover most of the year following one's graduation from high school, and are known as shnat hachshara (year of preparation) like their predecessors. Most require of their programmes' participants a two year commitment to their movement on return from the program in Israel. Many such programmes are coordinated together with the Department for Jewish Zionist Education of the Jewish Agency for Israel, whose Machon L'Madrichei Chutz La'Aretz (Institute for Leaders from Abroad) [1] has been a component in many movements' year programmes since 1946. Year programmes may also include: studying at a Jewish educational institution, such as a yeshiva, or independent study programmes touring Israel volunteer work in a kibbutz; in a development town; with welfare and charity organisations; with the Magen David Adom ambulance service; in schools; on Israeli summer camps; with the IDF in Sar-El [2]; at archaeological digs; etc. experience or training with the IDF, such as the 8-week Marva Army Experience Program [3] a historical tour of Poland and the remains of Nazi Europe Fulfillment (Hagshama) As well as education, the movement experience is directed towards hagshama atzmit, or personal fulfillment of one's ideology, often closely aligned with that of their movement. Typically, for a diaspora movement member, this involves immigration to Israel, seen as an ultimate goal of Zionist ideals. Many movements organise groups of participants to take this difficult step together, forming a gar'in of olim (group of immigrants) who are prepared together for the process of aliyah. Service Year (Shnat Sherut) In Israel, it is common for active movement participants to commit a year of movement leadership between completing high-school and conscription into the Israel Defence Forces. Educational methods  Youth movements employ informal education methods to educate an ideology to their members. This is often achieved through regular meetings that socialise participants within their groups, as well as camps. Particularly on camps, but in all interactions movements create a counter-culture that produces a particular social environment where members can express themselves freely, although with an underlying focus towards the movement's ideology. Recently, there have been suggestion that youth movement counter-culture is waning, and needs to be revived [4] Activities and camps are essentially peer-led, usually by youth leaders who are often a few years older than the participants. Because of this, a friendly relationship is created between leaders and participants that encourages leadership by personal example (dugma ishit), whereby a leader's method of education is by being a moral, active and ideological member of the movement themself. List of modern movements AJ6: The Association of Jewish Sixthformers, based in the United Kingdom, with a branch in Shelomi, Israel. Ariel: 1980–ongoing. Split from Bnei Akiva in Israel, separating its meetings for males and females, and with each branch having its own rabbi for authority. BBYO: 1923–ongoing. The Bnei Brith Youth Organisation. Active internationally. Beyajad. 1988–ongoing. Active in Monterrey, Mexico. [5] Betar: 1923–ongoing. Associated with Revisionist Zionist movement and Likud party. Its members were heavily involved in Jewish resistance in the ghettos of Nazi Eastern Europe. Active internationally. Bnei Akiva: 1929–ongoing. Associated with Religious Zionism and, in Israel, the National Religious Party (most international branches are apolitical). Ideology of Torah ve'avodah - torah study and contributing to the build-up of the nation. Bnei Akiva claims to be the largest Zionist Youth Movement in the world, with over 50,000, members internationally (35 Countries) with another 100,000 in Israel. Chazit Hanoar: Politically unaffiliated, Jewish and Zionist education. Active in South America. [6] Ezra: 1919–ongoing. Religious movement, originally affiliated with the Agudat Yisrael party in Israel. In Palestine from 1936. Has founded many kibbutzim and moshavim. [7] and now Ezra Olami works in USA Canada Russia Belarus Ukraine England Germany [8] Federation of Zionist Youth (FZY): 1910–ongoing. (As FZY since 1935). Pluralistic - believes in teaching Jewish and Israeli culture, promoting righteousness, defense of Jewish rights and aliyah. [9] Habonim Dror: Merger of Dror (est. 1915) and Habonim Union (1929) in 1980. Associated with Labour Zionism, the United Kibbutz Movement and the Labour party. Dror led the Warsaw ghetto uprising[citation needed]. Active internationally. A secular youth movement. Haihud Hahaklai (the Agricultural Union): 1978–ongoing. Associated with a union of agricultural villages, but politically non-partisan. Active in Israel. [10] Hamaccabi Hatzair: 1926–ongoing. Founded in Germany, associated with the World Maccabi Jewish sports organisation, while the youth movement also promoted aliya and pioneering through rural settlement. Hamahanot Ha'olim: 1926–ongoing. Associated with the United Kibbutz Movement. Five principles of pioneering, Zionism, socialism, democracy and humanism. Established originally by Herzlia Gymnasium. Active in Israel. [11] Hanoar Hatzioni: 1926–ongoing. Scouting movement with pluralistic outlook. Active in 16 countries worldwide and has a strong belief in Judaism, Zionism and Pluralism, all of which should be looked at in an holistic framework. Hanoar Haoved Vehalomed: 1924–ongoing. Established as HaNoar HaOved ("the working youth") by the Histadrut (General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine) to meet the social, cultural and education needs of working youth. After merging in 1959 with the Habonim Union, the current movement was formed, "the Working and Student Youth". Active in Israel. Hashomer Hatzair: 1913–ongoing. A Zionist-socialist youth movement founded in Galicia (today's Poland). Established what was the Mapam party, following the migration to Israel and founding of kibbutzim by many members in the early 1920s. Its members were heavily involved in Jewish resistance in the ghettos of Nazi Eastern Europe. Active internationally. Hehalutz: 1918–Initially established in Russia under Joseph Trumpeldor to prepare potential olim for labour and pioneering work. Mostly collapsed after World War II (ongoing in South America only). Active in South America. Hineni: 1976–ongoing. Modern Orthodox Judaism, Politically Active, Modern Orthodox, Pluralist Zionist movement. Not associated with particular Zionist ideology or party. Active in Australia. [12] Hatzofim Haivriim (the Hebrew Scouts): 1919–ongoing. Associated with the world Scouting movement, whose ideals it generally shares. Active in Israel. [13] Magshimey Herut: 1999–ongoing. Acitivist movement associated with Revisionist Zionism made up of religious and non-religious young adults. Ideology a combination of retaining the borders of Greater Israel and social activism on behalf of Israel's poor. Affiliated with the Herut party. Active in North America and Israel. Netzer: 1980–ongoing. Associated with the World Union for Progressive Judaism. Central focus on Reform Zionism and social activism through tikkun olam (repairing the world). Netzer Olami also claims to be the largest zionist youth movement in the world with over 30,000 members worldwide. Active internationally. Noam: Associated with the Masorti (Conservative Judaism) movement. Active in Israel, Argentina, Brazil and the UK. North American Federation of Temple Youth: 1939–ongoing. The organized youth movement of Reform Judaism in North America. Affiliated with the Union for Reform Judaism and Netzer Olami. Tzeirei Ami: 1978–ongoing. Chilean pluralistic Zionist scouting movement. Active in South America. [14] Young Judaea: 1909–ongoing. Associated with Hadassah Women's Zionist Organization. Focus on Zionist Jewish identity and social action in a pluralist environment. Active as the largest movement in the USA.

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