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Details about  Poland, Vetrinary Medicine, Gdansk, Danzig

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Poland, Vetrinary Medicine, Gdansk, Danzig
Poland-Vetrinary-Medicine-Gdansk-Danzig
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Item condition:
--not specified
Ended:
Jul 01, 2012
Price:
US $29.90
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Item location:
European Union, Malta

Description

eBay item number:
400227883129
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
Last updated on  Jun 09, 2012 09:26:39 PDT  View all revisions

Item specifics

Circulated/Uncirculated: Circulated Country: Poland
Material: bronze

Rosirenon's Medals Gallery

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This medal is a part of my Polish medals collection

 

 

 

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Medicine, Pharmacology

Science 

Poland; History

 

 

 

 

This medal has been minted in 1970 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Veterinary University of Gdansk, Poland.

 

 

 

Gdansk (German: Danzig), Kashubian: Gduńsk, Latin: Gedania; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.

The city lies on the southern coast of the Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea), in a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdynia and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the greater Gdańsk or the Tricity (Trójmiasto) with a population of over a million people. Gdańsk is, with a population of 460,524 (mid 2004), the largest city in the historical province of Eastern Pomerania. North lies the Kashubian Tricity: Rumia, Reda, and Wejherowo.

 

 

av. The medical symbol and the inscription in Polish – “The Veterinary Institut in Gdansk

rv. The coat od arms of Gdansk.

 

size –  100 mm ( ca 4“)

weight –  382.00 gr, (13.48 oz)

metal – bronze, beautiful patina

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gdansk

 

Gdańsk is situated at the mouth of the Motława river, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the Vistula, whose waterway system connects 60% of the area of Poland, giving the city a unique advantage as the center of Poland's sea trade.

Historically an important seaport since medieval times and subsequently a principal ship-building centre, Gdańsk was a member of the Hanseatic League. Today the city remains an important industrial centre, together with the nearby port of Gdynia, and is world famous as the birthplace of the Solidarity movement which, under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa, played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in the Eastern Bloc.

Foundation and the Middle Ages

According to archeologists, the Gdańsk stronghold was built in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland. The year 997 was celebrated as the date of the foundation of the city, this being the year when Saint Adalbert of Prague (sent by the Polish king Boleslaus the Brave) baptized the inhabitants of Gdańsk (urbs Gyddanyzc).

In the following years Gdańsk was the main centre of a Polish splinter duchy ruled by the Dukes of Pomerania. The most famous of them, Świętopełk II of Pomerania, granted a local autonomy charter in ca. 1235 to the city, which at the time had about 2,000 inhabitants. But at this time, the town had already obtained the city charter under Lübeck law (Lübisches Stadtrecht) in 1224 and the official spoken language was German.

By 1308 Gdańsk had became a flourishing trading city with some 10,000 inhabitants, but in the Gdańsk Massacre of November 13, 1308, it was occupied and demolished by the Teutonic Knights. This led to a series of wars between the Knights and Poland, ending with the Peace of Kalisz in 1343 when the Knights acknowledged that they would hold Pomerania as "an alm" from the Polish king. Although it left the legal basis of their possession of the province in some doubt, the agreement permitted the foundation of the municipality in 1343 and the development of increased export of grain from Poland via the Vistula river trading routes.

While under the control of the Knights, the city and its trade prospered, German influence increased, and the city began to be referred to by variations of "Gdańsk", ultimately developing into the Germanised version of the Polish name: "Danzig". The city became a full member of the Hanseatic League in 1361, and its city seal showed, similar to that of Lübeck, a "Hansekogge" ship, with the inscription SIGILLUM BURGENSIUM DANTZIKE (approx. Seal of the Citizens of Dantzik).

A new war broke out in 1409, ending with the Battle of Grunwald (1410), and the city briefly came under the direct overlordship of the Polish king. A year later, with the Peace of Toruń (Thorn) in 1411, it returned to the Teutonic Knights' administration. In 1440 Danzig participated in the foundation of the Prussian Union which eventually led to the Thirteen Years War (1454-1466) and the incorporation of Royal Prussia to the direct rule of the Polish Crown.

Thanks to the Royal charters granted by king Casimir IV the Jagiellonian and the free access to all Polish markets, Danzig became a large and prosperous seaport and city. The 16th and 17th centuries were a Golden Age for trade and culture of the city. Beside the Germans, inhabitants from various other ethnic groups (Poles, Jews, and Dutch being the largest) contributed to Danzig's identity and rich culture of this period. A large number of Scotsmen took refuge or emigrated to and received citizenship in Danzig and other Prussian cities (see links below) and also, through trade, all over the Baltic region. With the Reformation, the German inhabitants adopted the Lutheran confession.

The city suffered a slow economic decline due to the wars in the 18th century, when it was taken by the Russians after the Siege of Danzig in 1734. Danzig was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793 and remained Prussian until 1919 – except for the short period of 1807-1815 when it was the Free City of Danzig during the Napoleonic years. As part of Prussia, its longest serving Regierungspräsident was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, before the troubles of 1848, until 1863. Danzig became part of the German Empire in 1871.

After the final Soviet offensive began in January 1945, hundreds of thousands of German refugees fled through the city's port in a large-scale naval operation employing hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were subsequently sunk by Soviet forces (see Wilhelm Gustloff). In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.

On 30 March 1945, the Red Army captured the city, and left the city in ruins [2]. After the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, Gdańsk was assigned to Poland, along with all other territories east of the Oder-Neisse line. The remaining German residents of the city who survived the war were expelled to Germany, and henceforth the city became wholly Polish populated.

Poles came to the city from throughout Poland, especially from the regions of eastern Poland annexed by the Soviet Union. The Old City was rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the development of its port and three major shipyards, Gdańsk was a major shipping and industrial center of the Communist People's Republic of Poland.

In the course of German-Polish reconciliation policies driven by West German Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik, German territorial claims on Gdańsk (and all other formerly German territories now under Polish administration) were renounced, and its full incorporation into Poland was recognized in the Treaty of Warsaw in 1970.

In 1970 Gdańsk was the scene of anti-government demonstrations which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader Władysław Gomułka. Ten years later the Gdańsk Shipyard was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement, whose opposition to the government led to the end of communist party rule (1989). Solidarity's leader Lech Wałęsa became President of Poland in 1990. Today Gdańsk is a major industrial city and shipping port.

Throughout its history Gdańsk/Danzig faced various periods of rule from different states before 1945:

 

 

From the early 13th century until 1945 the vast majority of Danzig's population had been of German ethnicity and German had been the language officially spoken since its city charter was granted in 1224 under Lübeck Law. For example, in the course of a poll executed in 1923, 96% of the citizens of Danzig stated German to be their mother tongue whereas 3% stated Polish to be so. Danzig enjoyed far reaching privileges concerning its self-autonomy (e.g. laid down in the Second Peace of Toruń) while it was under protection of the Polish Crown between 1466 - 1793. Due to its mainly German population the city resisted the Counter-Reformation and stayed predominantly Protestant until 1945. In 1945, the surviving German population was expelled to the western parts of Germany and the city was eventually re-populated by Poles, themselves expelled from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union.

 

 

 

 

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