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Patriarchs Militant,Civil War Era Odd Fellows Button
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VERY OLD ANTIQUE ODD FELLOWS BUTTON WITH SCOVILL WATERBURY CONNECTICUT BACK MARK. PATRIARCHS MILITANT I.O.O.F. THIS VERY MUCH APPEARS TO BE CIVIL WAR PERIOD OR EAVEN EARLIER.

 

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The American Civil War (1861–1865), also known as the War Between the States and several other names, was a civil war in the United States of America. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the U.S. federal government (the "Union"), which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states.

In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union even before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Both the outgoing and incoming U.S. administrations rejected secession, regarding it as rebellion.

Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U.S. military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Lincoln responded by calling for a volunteer army from each state, leading to declarations of secession by four more Southern slave states. Both sides raised armies as the Union assumed control of the border states early in the war and established a naval blockade. In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal, and dissuaded the British from intervening. Confederate commander Robert E. Lee won battles in the east, but in 1863 Lee's northward advance was turned back at Gettysburg and, in the west, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy. Long-term Union advantages in men and material were realized in 1864 when Ulysses S. Grant fought battles of attrition against Lee as Union General William Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia, and marched to the sea. Confederate resistance collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.

The war, the deadliest in American history, caused 620,000 soldier deaths and an undetermined number of civilian casualties, ended slavery in the United States, restored the Union by settling the issue of secession and strengthened the role of the federal government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war continue to shape contemporary American policies.

___________________________________________________________

Independent Order of Odd Fellows

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Independent Order of Odd Fellows
IOOF
Official Logo of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
Founded April 26, 1819 (1819-04-26) (191 years ago)
Baltimore, Maryland US
Type Service Fraternity
Scope International
Motto Friendship,
Love,
Truth
Colors           White
          Blue and
          Red
Symbol Three Link Chain
Headquarters Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
Homepage http://www.ioof.org
"Past Grand Sires of the Grand Lodge of the United States IOOF" including founder Thomas Wildey.
The IOOF Hall at the corner of Yonge and College streets in Toronto, Ontario.
The IOOF building at 47 Gawler Place, Adelaide.
The IOOF Building in San Diego, California.
Odd Fellow-gården, Stortingsgata 28, Oslo.
Lodge buildings bearing the IOOF emblem stand in many small American towns. (Rockfield, Indiana shown.)

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), also known as the Three Link Fraternity, is an altruistic and benevolent fraternal organization derived from the similar British Oddfellows service organizations which came into being during the 18th century, at a time when altruistic and charitable acts were far less common.[1] In the U.S., it is a Mutual Benefit Corporation[2] (U.S. IRS tax code 501(c)(8)).

The word "Independent" in the organization's name was given by the English parent organization as part of the chartered title in the new North American chapter:

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded on the North American Continent in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819 when Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England.[1]

Contents

Philosophy and purpose

As an organization, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows are dedicated to improving and elevating the character of mankind by imparting the principles of friendship, love and truth and making the world a better place to live by aiding the community, the less fortunate, the youth, the elderly, the environment and the community at large in every way possible.[3] It aims to improve and elevate every person to a higher, nobler plane; to extend sympathy and aid to those in need, making their burdens lighter, relieving the darkness of despair; to war against vice in every form, and to be a great moral power and influence for the good of humanity. Teachings in the Order are conducted through the exemplification of the Degrees of membership. The Degrees are conferred on the candidate by their Lodge, and are teachings of principles and truths by ceremonies and symbols. The Degrees are presented largely by means of allegory and drama.[4] For Odd Fellows, the degrees in Odd Fellowship emphasizes a leaving of the old life and the start of a better one, of welcoming travelers, and of helping those in need.[5] The command of the IOOF is to "visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan."

According to an IOOF Sovereign Grand Lodge brochure, the organization's works include:[6][7]

  • The Odd Fellows and Rebekahs spend over US$775 million in relief projects annually
  • The Educational Foundation provides substantial loans and grants to students
  • SOS Children’s Village provides a caring home for orphaned children in 132 countries around the world
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provide a caring environment for the elderly
  • Living Legacy focuses on planting trees and enhancing the environment
  • The Arthritis Foundation
  • Visual Research Foundation supports vision care and research through the Wilmer Eye Institute
  • United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth sponsors a group of students for an educational trip to the United Nations
  • Annual sponsorship of a float in the Rose Parade (Pasadena, California)
  • Annual pilgrimages to the "Tomb of the Unknowns" (Arlington National Cemetery, USA), and other Tombs of the Unknown Soldier.[8]
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provides a caring environment for the elderly and orphans
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah camps and parks provide recreation for the youth and for families

Fellowship in the IOOF entails:[9]

  • The strongest fraternal society on the continent.[which?]
  • A great worldwide united brotherhood.
  • A fraternity founded on the basis of universal brotherhood.
  • Based on the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
  • Founded on the North American continent in 1819.
  • Based upon the purest principles of equality.
  • Non-political and non-sectarian.
  • A source of comfort in times of trouble and adversity.
  • A world-wide force that stands for all that is noblest and highest.
  • An everyday guide for conduct, a mantle that should be worn always.
  • An organization that favors no person for their wealth and frowns on none for their poverty.
  • An ideal that exists in the heart and mind of every genuine Odd Fellow or Rebekah.
  • Fulfilling a mission in the world which no other institution has successfully attempted.
  • A vitalizing, sympathetic, and actuating influence in the lives of all its real members.
  • A ministering spirit succoring the needy, cheering the despondent and protecting the helpless.
  • The handmaid of virtue and religion.
  • Founded on the inspired word of God as revealed to man in the Holy scriptures.

[edit] Name

Several theories aim to explain the meaning of the name "Odd Fellows".

One says that they were called "odd" because in the beginning of Odd Fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of industrialization, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as benevolence, charity and fraternalism.[10]

A variation on that theory states: "The Odd Fellows, at least according to one story, got its curious name from the fact that it was a lodge that opened its doors to the working class who at that time did not ordinarily belong to fraternal orders—and were thus 'odd'. This may or may not be true as the Odd Fellows have been around for a long time and a good many things get lost in the fog of history."[11]

Another theory states that Odd Fellows were people who engaged in miscellaneous or "odd" trades. In the 18th century, major trades were organized in guilds or other forms of syndicate, but smaller trades did not have any social or financial security. For that reason, people who exercised unusual trades joined together to form a larger group of "odd" fellows.[10]

A slightly different version of this second theory states: "By the 13th century, the tradesmen's Guilds had become established and prosperous. During the 14th Century, with the growth of trade, the guild 'Masters' moved to protect their power (and wealth) by restricting access to the Guilds. In response, the less experienced (and less wealthy) 'Fellows' set up their own rival Guilds. In smaller towns and villages, there weren't enough Fellows from the same trade to set up a local Guild, so Fellows from a number of trades banded together to form a local Guild of Fellows from an odd assortment of trades. Hence, Guilds of Odd Fellows."[12]

[edit] History

"In all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of cultural development, there have always been voluntary associations formed for higher purposes. It is admitted that 'mystery of long-past ages enshrouds the origin of Odd Fellowship'",[13] and that the exact date of its first founding is 'lost in the mist of antiquity'.[14] The Manchester Unity Oddfellows (in United Kingdom) state on their website that "Oddfellows can trace its roots back to the Trade Guilds of the 12th and 13th centuries.[15] Some believe that there are records in Scotland which show that the Oddfellows in its original form may have arisen in the 1500s.[16][17] Some historians claim that it existed before 1650.[18]

What is clear is that there were numerous Oddfellow organizations in England in the 1700s.[19] One Edwardian Oddfellow history argued that in 1710 there was a 'Loyal Lintot of Oddfellows' in London.[20] The first Oddfellows group in South Yorkshire, England, dates from 1730.[21] The earliest surviving documented evidence of an “Oddfellows” lodge is the minutes of Loyal Aristarchus Oddfellow Lodge no. 9 in England, dated March 12, 1748. By it being lodge number 9, this connotes that there were older Oddfellows lodges that existed before this date.[22] As a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 (when the Protestant William of Orange replaced the Catholic King James II), by the mid-18th century, the Order of Patriotic Oddfellows had formed in the south of England, supporting William,[23] and The Ancient Order of Oddfellows had formed in the north, supporting the Stuarts.[21] Subsequent to the failure of Bonnie Prince Charlie's uprising, in 1789 these two Orders formed a partial amalgamation as the Grand United Order of Oddfellows. These days they are more commonly known as "The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society" (GUOOFS),[24] abandoning all political and religious disputes and committing itself to promoting the harmony and welfare of its members. Some books mention that there was a lodge of a 'Union Order of Oddfellows' in London in 1750, and one in Derby in 1775.[25] The Oddfellows Magazine of 1888 included a picture of a medal presented to the secretary of a lodge of the Grand Independent Order of Oddfellows in 1796. On a magazine review of a 1798 sermon preached in the Sheffield Parish Church, the "Oddfellows appear to be very numerous with about thirty-nine lodges of them in London and its vicinity, two at Sheffield, and one at each of the following places: Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Shrewsbury, Windsor, Wandsworth, Canterbury, Liverpool, Richmond in Surrey and Lewes".[26] This suggested that the "Original United Order of Oddfellows" consisted of a total of 50 lodges at that time. In 1810, various lodges of the Union or United Order in the Manchester area declared themselves as an "Independent Order", and organized the "Manchester Unity of Oddfellows" which chartered the Odd Fellows in North America in 1819.[27][28]

While several unofficial or self-institued lodges had existed in New York City sometime in the period 1806 to 1818,[29] because of the charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern[30] on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey and some associates[1] who assembled in response to a newspaper advertisement. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges.

In 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, the American Lodges formed a separate governing system from the English Order, and in 1843 changed their name to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[27] In the following years, lodges were instituted all over the country, first in the east and later in the west. Also in 1842, the English Oddfellow Grand Lodges issued a warrant to an African American sailor named Peter Ogden from New York City; unlike Wildey and the IOOF, Ogden and the African American Odd Fellows lodges never separated from the English order, and they remain part of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF),[31] still headquartered in Philadelphia.[27]

On September 20, 1851, IOOF became the first national fraternity to accept both men and women when it formed the Daughters of Rebekah. Schuyler Colfax, (Vice President of the United States (1869–1873) under President Ulysses S. Grant), was the force behind the movement.[32][27] Both the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs have higher branches known as Encampments and Patriarchs Militant.[33][34]

The American Civil War (1861–1865) shattered the IOOF in America; membership decreased and many lodges were unable to continue their work, especially in the southern States.[35] After the Civil War, with the beginning of industrialization, the deteriorating social circumstances brought large numbers of people to the IOOF and the lodges rallied.

From 1860 to 1910/1920, also known as the "Golden Age of Fraternalism" in America,[11][27] the Odd Fellows became the largest among all fraternal organizations, (at the time, even larger than freemasonry).[27] By 1889, the IOOF had lodges in every American state.[36][37]

In 1896, the World Almanac showed the Odd Fellows as the largest among all fraternal organizations.[11] The Order had also spread to most of the rest of the world, establishing lodges in the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. The peak of membership was probably in 1915 when the IOOF had 3.4 million active members.[38]

[edit] 20th century

The Great Depression and the introduction of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal brought a decline in membership. During the depression, people could not afford Odd Fellows membership fees, and when the New Deal's social reforms started to take effect, the need for the social work of the Odd Fellows declined.[35]

Some branches of the order (i.e. some countries) have allowed women to join the Odd Fellows itself, leading to the Rebekahs' decline in importance. Also, the higher branches and their degrees are, in some countries, becoming regarded as less important or too time-consuming, and (in those countries) are gradually being abandoned.

[edit] 21st century

Although there was a decline in membership in fraternal organizations in general during the 20th century, membership in the 21st century has started to increase. The IOOF continues in the 21st century with lodges around the world, and is claimed to be the "largest united international fraternal order in the world under one head",[39] with every lodge working with the Sovereign Grand Lodge located in the United States. Also, the British "Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity", and the IOOF have recognized each other inter-fraternally; members of the Manchester Unity and the IOOF can visit each other's lodges, and are welcome as brothers and sisters.[40] Currently, there are about 12,000 lodges with nearly 600,000 members.[41]

Units of the Order in the U.S.A. include:[42]

  • Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Rebekahs Lodge
  • Encampment
  • Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA)
  • Patriarchs Militant
  • Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM)
  • Junior Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Theta Rho Girls Club
  • United Youth Groups
  • Zeta Lambda Tau

[edit] Summary of Grand Lodges by region

There are IOOF lodges in at least 29 countries:[42][43][44][45][46][47] Each Grand Lodge has a number of subordinate lodges that report to them.

Region
↓
Total
Grand
Lodges
↓
Ref Regions / Jurisdictions / Countries    (Date established) Ref
Africa 0 [44]
[45]
[46]
Liberia (1874)*,[48] Nigeria (2008)*,[49] [44]
[45]
[46]
Asia 0 Philippines (1872)*[44][48][50]
Australasia 6 Australasia, New South Wales (1836), New Zealand (1843), South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Canada 8 Canada (1843), Alberta, Atlantic Provinces, British Columbia (1864), Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec (1878), Saskatchewan
Europe 13 Europe (2006), Austria, Czech Republic (1877)*,[42][48] Denmark (1878), Estonia (1993)*,[42][48] Finland (1925), France (1884)*,[42][48] Germany (1870), Iceland (1897), Netherlands & Belgium (1911), Norway (1920), Poland (1938)*,[42][48] Spain*,[42][48] Sweden (1895), Switzerland
Central America 2 Belize*,[42][48] Dominican Republic*,[42][48] Cuba (1883), Mexico (1882), Puerto Rico (1999)*,[48][51]
South America 1 Chile (1874),[52] Uruguay*,[42][48] Venezuela,[42][48]
United Kingdom 0 (The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity.)[47]
United States of America 51 Sovereign Grand Lodge (1819), Alabama, Arizona (1884), Arkansas, California (1847), Colorado (1860), Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii (1846), Idaho, Illinois (1838), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri (1834), Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York (1806), North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma (1875), Oregon, Pennsylvania (1821), Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (1878), West Virginia, Wisconsin (1835), Wyoming
Totals 81

[edit] Symbols, lodges, officers, positions and degrees

The most widely encountered symbol of the IOOF – on signs and gravemarkers – is the three-link chain ("the Chain With Three Links", the "Triple Links") with three initials, 'F', 'L' and 'T', one each inside each link, signifying Friendship, Love and Truth.

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the US has three levels of "Lodge": the Subordinate Lodge, the Encampment, and the Patriarchs Militant. In addition, there is a private club named The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS). In Australia, this system has been implemented in a slightly different, but largely similar manner.[53]

[edit] Subordinate Lodge

The Subordinate Lodge is the Lodge assigned to new initiates.[54] The initials of the subordinate lodge are "FLT" (Friendship, Love and Truth). Once a member has made their way through all the degrees and has had the 3rd degree (truth) bestowed upon them, they are entitled to hold an officer position in their lodge, and are also eligible to go on further in Odd Fellowship through the higher degree branches such as the Encampment and the Patriarchs Militant (aka the Canton).

Subordinate Lodge Officer Positions[55]
  • Noble Grand
  • Vice Grand
  • Past Grand
  • Treasurer
  • Recording Secretary
  • Financial Secretary
  • Right Supporter to the Noble Grand
  • Left Supporter to the Noble Grand
  • Right Supporter to the Vice Grand
  • Left Supporter to the Vice Grand
  • Right Scene Supporter
  • Left Scene Supporter
  • Warden
  • Chaplain
  • Conductor
  • Color Bearer
  • Musician
  • Inside Guardian
  • Outside Guardian
Subordinate Lodge Degrees

0 Initiatory
1 Friendship
2 Brotherly/Sisterly Love
3 Truth

[edit] Encampment

In Odd Fellowship one must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the highest branch, the Patriarchs Militant.[56] Once one has accomplished the 3rd degree of the Encampment, one is eligible to hold an officer position in the Encampment and is also eligible for the Patriarchs Militant.

The initials of the Encampment are FHC which stands for Faith, Hope and Charity. The Encampment's seal is a purple tent with golden trim, the triple links above the tent door and crossed shepherds crooks. These symbols can be seen on the purple fez that American members of this branch wear. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within their own subordinate lodge while in the Encampment.

Encampment Officers[55]
  • Chief Patriarch (male)/ Chief Matriarch (female)
  • Senior Warden
  • Junior Warden
  • Scribe
  • Treasurer
  • High Priest
  • Instructor
  • Marshal
  • Colour Bearer
  • Musician
  • Inside Sentinel
  • Outside Sentinel
  • Guide
  • First Watch
  • Second Watch
  • Third Watch
  • Fourth Watch
  • First Guard of the Tent
  • Second Guard of the Tent
  • Third Guard of the Tent
  • Fourth Guard of the Tent
Encampment Degrees

1 Patriarch
2 Golden Rule
3 Royal Purple

Again, in legal terminology, American Encampments are also considered U.S. I.R.S. 501(c)(8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

[edit] Patriarchs Militant

The Patriarchs Militant (PM) is Odd Fellowship's uniformed branch,[57] and is the branch which offers the highest degree of the IOOF. There is only one degree, the Chevalier degree. Upon completion of this degree, one is entitled to hold office in the Canton. Sometimes the Patriarchs Militant is referred to as "the Canton", due to the Canton being the name used in lieu of "Lodge". The seal of the PM is a gold and jeweled crown, within which is a shepherds crook crossed with a sword and the triple links of Odd Fellowship connecting the two at the bottom. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within both the subordinate lodge and Encampment while a member of the PM.

Canton Officers
  • Commandant
  • Lieutenant
  • Ensign
  • Clerk/Accountant
  • Chaplain
  • Colour Bearer
  • Guard
  • Sentinel
  • Picket
Patriarch Militant Degree

1 Chevalier

American Cantons are also considered US IRS 501(c) (8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

[edit] The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS)

AMOS[58] was preceded by a number of independent clubs, such as the OOH&P (Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection) and the Imperial Order of Muscovites. These were disbanded in the first two decades of the 20th Century, and melded together to form the AMOS. The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans is not an officially recognized body within Odd Fellowship; it is a private club to which only those who are Odd Fellows may belong. A brother who holds the third degree and is in good standing within his subordinate lodge (i.e. he has not been expelled or in arrears of dues, etc.) is eligible to make an application to join.

The brothers who belong to the AMOS, much like the Shriners, wear a red fez, but the tassel which hangs from the fez is of different colors depending on the degree attained or the office held. The seal of the AMOS is an owl sitting upon a pyramid. Above the owl are the words "WE NEVER SLEEP"; at the base of the pyramid is the word Xerxes, and below the pyramid is the Arabian sword called a scimitar. The word Xerxes alludes to the password of the first degree of the AMOS.

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) Degrees
  1. Humility (or Samaritan) [Red fez with a yellow tassel]
  2. Perfection (or Sheik) [Red fez with a red tassel]

[edit] Grand United Order of Odd Fellows

The American Grand United Order of Odd Fellows[31] is a fraternal organization founded in 1843 for black members.[59] Created at a time when the IOOF was primarily a white-only organization, the GUOOF obtained its charter directly from Manchester in Great Britain and the American IOOF organization had no control over it. Although still in existence, membership in the US has declined, due to the mainstream IOOF no longer being segregated and the decline in fraternal membership in general.

[edit] Notable members of the IOOF

'Odd Fellowship, unlike many other organizations, makes no special effort to attract "name" members. Ours is a warm, personal type of affiliation that doesn't rely on "rubbing elbows" with the famous to give us satisfaction.'[39] Below are some of the notable men and women who were members of the fraternity:

Wyatt Earp's IOOF membership card, 1909

[edit] Architectural impact

Although in Britain the Odd Fellows tended to meet in pubs, in the US the lodges often built their own facilities. Many of these are now on the US National Register of Historic Places:

[edit] See also

[edit] References

 

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