Greek city of Lampsakos in Mysia
Bronze 10mm (0.97 grams) Struck circa 400-200 B.C.
Reference: SNG France 1223-6
Female head right, hair bound in chignon.
Forepart of Pegasus right.
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Pegasus is one of the
best known mythological creatures in Greek
mythology. He is a winged divine stallion usually depicted as pure
white in colour. He was sired by Poseidon,
in his role as horse-god, and foaled by the Gorgon Medusa. He
was the brother of Chrysaor,
born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus.
Greco-Roman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his
king of the gods, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from
Olympus. Friend of the Muses, Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene,
the fountain on Mt.
Helicon. He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near
the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allows the
hero to ride him to defeat a monster, the Chimera, before realizing many other
exploits. His rider, however, falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus.
Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and
placed him up in the sky.
Hypotheses have been proposed regarding its relationship with the Muses,
the gods Athena, Poseidon, Zeus, Apollo,
and the hero Perseus.
The symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Symbol of wisdom and especially of
fame from the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, he became one symbol of the
poetry and the creator of sources in which the poets come to draw inspiration,
particularly in the 19th century. Pegasus is the subject of a very rich
iconography, especially through the ancient Greek pottery and paintings and
sculptures of the Renaissance. Personification of the water, solar myth, or
shaman mount, Carl Jung and his followers have seen in Pegasus a profound
symbolic esoteric in relation to the spiritual energy that allows to access to
the realm of the gods on Mount Olympus.
In the 20th and 21st century, he appeared in movies, in fantasy, in video games
and in role play, where by extension, the term "pegasus" (plural: "pegasi") is
often used to refer to any winged horse.
The poet Hesiod presents
etymology if the name Pegasus as
derived from pēgē "spring,
well": "the pegai of Okeanos,
where he was born."
A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas,
meaning "lightning", and Pihassassi,
a local Luwian-Hittite name in southern Cilicia of a weather god represented
with thunder and lightning. The proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus'
role, reported as early as Hesiod,
as bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus. It was first suggested in 1952 and remains
widely accepted, but Robin
Lane Fox (2009) has criticized it as implausible.
According to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth,
an inspiring spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses' Mount
Helicon, the Hippocrene ("horse
spring"), opened, Antoninus
Liberalis suggested, at
the behest of Poseidon to
prevent the mountain swelling
with rapture at the song of the Muses; another was at Troezen. Hesiod
relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured
him. Hesiod also says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus.
There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in
the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod's "springs of Oceanus, which
encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa:
One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa's neck as Perseus was
beheading her, similar to the manner
in which Athena was
born from the head of Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa,
they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon's blood. A variation of this
story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa's blood, Pain and
sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last
version bears resemblance to the birth of Aphrodite,
daughter of Zeus.
Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in
his fight against both the Chimera and
There are varying tales as to how Bellerophon found Pegasus; the most common says
that the hero was told by Polyeidos to
sleep in the temple
of Athena, where the goddess visited him in the night and presented
him with a golden bridle. The next morning, still clutching the bridle, he found
Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring
and caught Pegasus, and eventually tamed him.
Michaud's Biographie universelle relates
that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning is released.
Then, according to certain versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him
to Perseus, who flew to Ethiopia to help Andromeda.
In fact Pegasus is a late addition to the story of Perseus, who flew on his own
with the sandals loaned him by Hermes.
Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon to forge some sweet goods and continued to
Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus'
other steeds, and was given the task of carrying Zeus'
thunderbolts. Because of his faithful service to Zeus, he was honored with
transformation into aconstellation. On
the day of his catasterism,
when Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a single feather fell to the
earth near the city of Tarsus.
War II, the silhouetted image of Bellerophon the warrior, mounted on
the winged Pegasus, was adopted by the United
Kingdom's newly-raised parachute troops in 1941 as their upper sleeve
insignia. The image clearly symbolized a warrior arriving at a battle by air,
the same tactics used by paratroopers.
The square upper-sleeve insignia comprised Bellerophon/Pegasus in light blue on
a maroon background. The insignia was designed by famous English novelist Daphne
du Maurier, who was married to the commander of the 1st
Airborne Division (and
later the expanded British Airborne Forces), General Frederick
"Boy" Browning. According
to The British Army Website, the insignia was designed by Major Edward Seago in
May, 1942. The maroon background on the insignia was later used again by the
Airborne Forces when they adopted the famous maroon beret in Summer 1942. The
beret was the origin of the German nickname for British airborne troops, The Red
Devils. Today's Parachute
Regiment carries on the
maroon beret tradition.
During the airborne
phase of the Normandy
invasion on the night of
5–6 June 1944, British
6th Airborne Division captured
all its key objectives in advance of the seaborne assault, including the capture
and holding at all costs of a vital bridge over theCaen
Canal, near Ouistreham.
In memory of their tenacity, the bridge has been known ever since as Pegasus
The winged horse that has provided an instantly recognizable corporate logo or
emblem of inspiration. Pegasus in Yu-Gi-Oh! is
a evil man who wants to steal the Exodyssian pecies. The South American country
of Ecuador launched
its first a satellite, named "Pegaso" (Pegaus in Spanish) on April 26, 2013. Pegasus
Seiya, the central character in the anime series Saint
Seiya , (Knights of the
Zodiac) takes his name "Pegasus" from the Pegasus Bronze Cloth he uses to
produce his armor. Pegasus
Airlines (Turkish: Pegasus
Hava Taşımacılığı A.Ş.) is a low-cost airline headquartered in the Kurtköy area
of Pendik, Istanbul, Turkey.
Λάμψακος, Lampsakos, modern:Lapseki)
was an ancient
Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the
in the northern
An inhabitant of Lampsacus was called a Lampsacene. The name has been
transmitted in the nearby modern town of
Originally known as Pityusa or Pityussa
Πιτυουσα, Pituousa, or Πιτυουσσα,
Pituoussa), it was colonized from
5th century BC, Lampsacus was successively dominated by
Artaxerxes I assigned it to
Themistocles with the expectation that the city supply the Persian king with
Lampsacus joined the
Delian League after the
battle of Mycale, and paid a tribute of twelve
talents, a testimony to its wealth, and it had a
gold coinage in the
century BC, an activity only available to the more prosperous cities.
A revolt against the Athenians in
411 BC was put
down by force. In
196 BC, the
defended the town against
Antiochus the Great, and it became an ally of Rome;
Verr. i. 24. 63) and
Strabo (13. 1.
15) attest its continuing prosperity under Roman rule. Lampsacus was also
notable for its worship of
was said to have been born there.
Lampsacus produced a series of notable philosophers.
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder) (5th century BC) was a philosopher from
the school of
Strato of Lampsacus (c. 335-c. 269 BC) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the
third director of Aristotle's
Euaeon of Lampsacus was one of
A group of Lampsacenes were in the circle of
Polyaenus of Lampsacus (c. 340 – 278 BC) a mathematician, the philosophers
Idomeneus of Lampsacus,
Leonteus of Lampsacus;
Batis of Lampsacus the wife of Idomeneus, was the sister of
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger), whose elder brother, also a friend of
Timocrates of Lampsacus.
According to legend,
St Tryphon was buried at Lampsacus after his martyrdom at
Nicaea in 250
The first known
bishop in Lampsacus was
Constantine I. In 364, the
was occupied by
Marcian and in the same year a council of bishops was held at Lampsacus.
Marcian, was summoned to the
First Council of Constantinople of
Constantinople in 381, but refused to retract his adherence of the
sect. Other known
Bishops of Lampsacus were
Daniel, who assisted at the
Council of Chalcedon (451);
Harmonius (458); Constantine (680), who attended the
Third Council of Constantinople; John (787), at Nicaea;
St. Euschemon, a correspondent of
St. Theodore the Studite, and a confessor of the Faith for the veneration of
The See of Lampsacus is mentioned in the "Notitiae
Episcopatuum" until about the twelfth or thirteenth century.
The nearby settlement of
inherited the name; its population is now in the region of 11,000.