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Details about  Civil War Letter James Crawford 10th Co First Invalid Corps, July 20, 1863

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Civil War Letter James Crawford 10th Co First Invalid Corps, July 20, 1863
Civil-War-Letter-James-Crawford-10th-Co-First-Invalid-Corps-July-20-1863
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Item condition:
Used
Ended:
Jul 03, 2012
Winning bid:
US $58.00
5 bids ]
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Item location:
Gaithersburg, MD, United States

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150845999168
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Used: An item that has been used previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of ... Read moreabout the condition
Fort Stevens, DC: James G. Crawford from Cleveland
Visit Store:   Antebellum Covers

Very interesting soldier's letter from James G. Crawford. 10th Co, First Invalid Corps, 3 pages in pencil.  Philadelphia at Dimond Square, nice illustratiion View of the Capitol at Washington, July 20, 63, to his brother, since last writing, things have taken quite a change with me in military, we have been organized into companies in the invalid corps, we are now at Phila PA, 5 companies came here to stop any riots should there be any, our company had to go to Scranton about 60 miles away where there are copperheads, the people are most awful kind to our soldiers, they came to camp last evening by the hundreds, the crowd was about 2,000, they brought all sorts of provisions, boys rejoiced as now they would have something good to eat once more, will you please send me $2.00 as this is the last sheet and the last postage stamp.  Someone in the past laminated this letter which is too bad but at least it is well preserved.   Comes with a color scan of a first person account in a letter Crawford wrote July 17, 1864 about Lincoln's visit to Fort Stevens.  Lincoln rode his horse up and down the lines commending the soldiers for their victory!

Fort Stevens was part of the extensive fortifications built around Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War. It was constructed in 1861 as "Fort Massachusetts" and later enlarged by the Union Army and renamed "Fort Stevens" after Brig. Gen. Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who was killed at the Battle of Chantilly, Virginia, on September 1, 1862.

The fort came under direct Confederate attack by troops led by Maj. Gen. Jubal Early in the Battle of Fort Stevens on July 11 and July 12, 1864.[1] President Abraham Lincoln rode out to the Fort on both days to observe the attack, and was briefly under enemy fire by sharpshooters. On July 12, he was brusquely ordered to take cover, mostly likely by Union Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright.[1] A story has grown up, probably apocryphal, that future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., then an aide-de-camp to Wright, yelled at Lincoln, "Get down, you fool!" Another story attributes this quote to nearby resident Elizabeth Thomas.[2] This is believed to have been only the second time in American history that a sitting president came under enemy fire during a war (the first being President James Madison during the War of 1812).

James G. Crawford

Residence was not listed; 
Enlisted as a Private (date unknown).

He also had service in:
"A" Co. US Army 2nd Cavalry 

On March 2, 1833, acting on a measure presented by Richard Johnson, Congress created the United States Regiment of Dragoons. With the creation of this unit, the U. S. Cavalry was born.(Urwin, 54)

The size of the U. S. Regiment of Dragoons was fixed by Congress, at 34 officers and 1,715 men. Henry Dodge was appointed the colonel in command. Other noteworthy officers were Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny, Captain Edwin V. Sumner, First Lieutenant Philip St. George Cooke, and Second Lieutenant Jefferson Davis.(Urwin, 55)

For the Mexican War it was clear that the US needed more mounted troops: the distances in Mexico were so great. There was some expansion in the Regulars, but many of the units were volunteers that were dissolved at the end of the war. In 1850 the Federal Government followed suit. Only two Dragoon regiments and one regiment of Mounted Riflemen (created in 1846) survived the government postwar reductions. But five years later, on March 3, 1855, Congress authorized the raising of two regiments of horse. These were needed to handle the expanding western frontier, especially as settlers pushed more and more against the Indians.

The 1st and 2nd U. S. Cavalry were the first regular American military organizations to bear the title of "cavalry".(Urwin, 96) It was rumored among the Dragoons and Mounted Riflemen that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis purposely received this special designation to enable him to appoint many of his Southern friends while disregarding seniority among the older mounted units. Whether this rumor was true or not, the disproportionate number of Southern officers in the new units would definitely affect the forming of the Union cavalry in the Civil War six years later.

The 1st Cavalry was assembled at Fort Leavenworth and commanded by Colonel Edwin V. Sumner. Five of his officers were later to play a significant role in the Civil War: Lt. Col. Joseph E. Johnston, Maj. John Sedgwick, Maj. William H. Emory, Capt. George B. McClellan, and Lt. J. E. B. Stuart. (Urwin, 96)

The 2nd Cavalry was trained at Jefferson Barracks. Albert Sidney Johnston was the Colonel, and some of his officers were: Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee, Maj. William J. Hardee, Maj. George H. Thomas, Captains Earl Van Dorn, George Stoneman, Edmund Kirby Smith, Lieutenants John Bell Hood, and Fitzhugh Lee. The 2nd was nicknamed 'Jeff Davis's Own,' and over the next four years clashed with hostiles nearly forty times. The regiment's most successful sorties were directed by its senior captain, Brev. Maj. Earl Van Dorn. (Urwin, 96-7)

At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, there were five regiments of U. S. cavalry: the 1st and 2nd Dragoons, the 1st Mounted Rifles, and the 1st and 2nd Cavalry. Shortly after the 3rd Cavalry was organized in 1861, all the regiments were renumbered from one to six and the twelve troops organization adopted. (Coggins, 48)

Out of the 176 officers of the five original regiments, 104 cast their lot with their native Southern states when the Civil War broke. As a result of this, not only did the Union cavalry have many green and untested troops, their officers were inexperienced too. In contrast, the Confederate cavalry had more experienced leadership which contributed to several years of battlefield superiority.


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