JEWELRY XHOSA SOUTH AFRICA BLUE BEADED TRADITIONAL COLLAR AFRICAN NECKLACE
Type of Object: AFRICAN COLLAR, (BEADED)
Ethnic Group: XHOSA
Country of Origin: SOUTH AFRICA
Materials: GLASS BEADS, COTTON
Approximate Age: 40+ years
Dimensions: 7.0” (17 cm) outside diameter, 4.5” (11 cm) inside diameter
Weight: 2.8 oz; 80.0 g; 0.18 lbs
Overall Condition: Used, VERY GOOD
Additional Information: From Wikepedia
The Xhosa (pronounced [kǁʰɔsɑ] ( listen)) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
Xhosa-speaking peoples are divided into several tribes with related but distinct heritages. The main tribes are the Mpondo, Mpondomise, Bomvana, Xesibe, and Thembu. In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language.
The name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader called uXhosa.
There is also a theory that the word xhosa derives from a word in some Khoi-khoi or San language meaning "fierce" or "angry", the amaXhosa being the fierce people. The Xhosa refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and to their language as isiXhosa.
Presently approximately 8 million Xhosa people are distributed across
the country, and Xhosa is South Africa's second most common home
language, after Zulu, to which Xhosa is closely related. The pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship and attempted to confine them to the nominally self-governing "homelands" of Transkei and Ciskei, now both a part of the Eastern Cape Province where most Xhosa remain. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town (iKapa in Xhosa), East London (iMonti), and Port Elizabeth (iBhayi).
As of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers, approximately 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 1 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225).
The Xhosa, also
often called the “Red Blanket People”, are of Nguni stock, like
the Zulu. The name Xhosa is a generalised term for a diversity
of proud clans, the Pondo, Bomvana,
Thembu and the Xhosa tribe itself. Red and the orange of ochre
were the traditional colours of the Xhosa, Tembu and Bomvana
(“the red ones”). The first group of early Nguni immigrants to
migrate to South Africa consisted of the Xhosa, (made up of the
the Gcaleka, Ngqika, Ndlambe and Dushane clans), the Thembu and
Pondo. However, a second group of Nguni-speakers joined these
These were the tribes that Shaka, the
Zulu king, drove out of Zululand. Some returned to Zululand when peace
was declared, but those who remained became known as the Mfengu and were
assimilated into the Xhosa nation. The early immigrants formed the
backbone of the Xhosa nation and have good
reason to be proud. Not only were they to become the second largest
group of Black Africans in South Africa but they were also the only ones
that were never defeated or enslaved by any other tribe. They even
repulsed the mighty Zulu chief, Shaka. Ex-President Nelson Mandela
belongs to this ethnic group.
The Xhosa live mainly in the Eastern Cape Province (the former Ciskei
and Transkei). The Kei (Great) River marks the boundary of what was once
the southern border of the former Transkei.
Art and Craft:
Other than the beadwork used for their traditional dress and their pipes
made of clay, the Xhosa people were not really known for any other arts
and crafts. The girls of the family usually produced the beadwork,
helping their mothers to make articles for themselves, their fathers,
brothers and boyfriends. From time to time they were permitted to borrow
these pieces and to wear them themselves.
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