Claudius - Roman Emperor: 41-54 A.D.
Copper As (30mm, 11.77 gm.), Rome: 41/2 A.D. Excellent artistic style. Superb.
Reference: RIC 113; C.47; BMC 202; BN 230.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P- Bare head of Claudius left.
LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing head right, holding pileus, left
Provided with Certificate of Authenticity.
by Sergey Nechayev, PhD -
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrfa, or Menrva) was the
Roman goddess whom Hellenizing Romans from the
second century BC onwards equated with the Greek
Athena. She was the virgin goddess of
magic, and the inventor of
music. She is often depicted with an owl, her
sacred creature and is, through this connection, a symbol of wisdom.
This article focuses on Minerva in ancient Rome and in
cultic practice. For information on Latin
literary mythological accounts of Minerva, which were heavily influenced by
Greek mythology, see
Pallas Athena, where she is one of three virgin
goddesses along with
Hestia, known by the Romans as
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13
October AD 54) (Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to AD 4, then
Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus from then until his accession) was the
Emperor, a member of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 24 January AD 41 to his death in AD 54.
Antonia Minor, he was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside
He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had
virtually excluded him from public office until his
Caligula in AD 37. This infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many
other Roman nobles during the purges of
and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat to
them. His very survival led to his being declared emperor (reportedly because
Praetorian Guard insisted) after Caligula's assassination, at which point he
was the last adult male of his family.
Despite his lack of political experience, Claudius proved to be an able
administrator and a great builder of public works. His reign saw an expansion of
the empire, including the
conquest of Britain. He took a personal interest in the law, presided at
public trials, and issued up to 20 edicts a day; however, he was seen as
vulnerable throughout his rule, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was
constantly forced to shore up his position. This resulted in the deaths of many
senators. Claudius also suffered setbacks in his personal life, one of which
may have led to his murder. These events damaged his reputation among the
ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion.