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TITLE:

Avian Biology, Care, Diseases, Models and Uses in Research,  213 pages (slides) 

SLIDE TOPICS, SUBTOPICS and CONTENTS:

Avian Biology, Care, Diseases, Models and Uses in Research

  LTC Ann Schiavetta

 

    Executive Officer

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)

 

March 2010

 

 

 

Special thanks to:

MAJ Kimberly Whitten, DACVPM, USAMRICD 

and

 Mike Quinn, PhD, USACHPPM

 

 

 

 

????????

ACLAM Tertiary Species
ACLAM Website Mar 2010

Tertiary         Other rodents           

Tertiary         Chicken (Gallus domestica)

Tertiary         Other nonhuman primates

Tertiary         Other mammals       

Tertiary         Pigeon (Columba livia)

Tertiary         Other amphibians    

Tertiary         Other livestock species including cattle                  and horses    

Tertiary         Other Fish     

Tertiary         Reptiles         

Tertiary         Other birds   

Tertiary         Invertebrates           

 

 

USE SEMINAR TIME WISELY

Taxonomy

Kingdom - Animalia

Phylum - Chordata

Class - Aves

Order - 27 orders with 8600 species

Only 5 orders used in research

Taxonomy - Orders

Five most commonly used orders:

Galliformes

 

Anseriformes

 

Columbiformes

 

Passeriformes (Passerines)

 

Psittaciformes (Psittacines)

EX:  Parrot family

(Technically,  the family Psittacidae includes parrots, parakeets , macaws and budgerigars)

Taxonomy – Genus/species

Gallus domesticus

Coturnix coturnix japonica

Meleagridis gallopavo

Columba livia

Anas platyrhynchos

Melopsittacus undulatus

Part I:  Research Uses
Useful Traits

Fast maturing

Can obtain highly inbred species

Great statistical confidence

Large numbers possible

Can be isolation reared if needed

Traits (continued)

Accurately reproduce the disease

Available

Adequate size

Relatively  easy to handle

Survive long enough to obtain required information

 

 

 

 


JAALAS 2006 Nov;45(6):63-6
Mortality associated with fenbendazole administration in pigeons (Columba livia)


Fenbendazole treatment for capillariasis

30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 days

8 of 12 pigeons -- anorexia, lethargy, dehydration; died within 2 d

Gross necropsy: Unremarkable gross findings.

Micro:

Acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small intestinal crypt necrosis, periportal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia, renal tubular necrosis

Regenerative anemia

Clinical and histopathologic signs consistent with recent reports of fenbendazole toxicity in domestic pigeons and other columbiform birds

 

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007 Nov;46(4):8-15.
Psittacine Birds as Laboratory Animals: Refinements and Assessment of Welfare
Kalmar ID, Moons CPH, Meers LL, Janssens PJ
 

Focus on parrots

Lifespan, intelligence

Biting

Restraint

Husbandry / housing

Dark:light

Other environmental considerations

Caging

Diet

Avocado

Social grouping

Feather destructive behavior

Use of Eggs/Egg Parts in Research

Eggs:

Viruses

Vaccine development

Antiviral compund testing

Cultures

 

Bacterial cultures

 

Use of Eggs/Egg Parts in Research

As alternatives for toxicity testing in rabbit eyes (Draize test)

 

Q:  ICCVAM?

A:  Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM)

Comprised of representatives from 15 U.S. Federal regulatory and research agencies that use, generate, or disseminate toxicological information;

Promotes scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological test methods that more accurately assess the safety or hazards of chemicals and products and that reduce, refine and/or replace animal use.

ICCVAM's stakeholders are any person or organization that uses, develops or has an interest in toxicological test methods or the data that is generated from toxicological testing.

Use of Eggs / Egg Parts in Research

Q:  What is the ICE test?

A:  Isolated chicken eye test

Q: Describe it.

A:  [Discuss]

Q:  HET-CAM test (describe it)?

A:  Hen’s egg-chorioallantoic membrane

 

 

 

Replacement for Draize rabbit eye irritation test and other irritation tests

Cosmetics, other eye irritants

Still not accepted as a full regulatory replacement

 

More recently:

Drug delivery/transport

 

Other Alternatives
Organotypic Models

In vitro organotypic models:

ICE

HET-CAM

Bovine corneal opacity + permeability assay (BCOP)

Isolated rabbit eye (IRE)

Criteria similar (not HET-CAM)

Regulatory acceptance

None validated as full replacement for Draize

Accepted for limited and specific regulatory purposes in cosmetic and other testing

Use of Eggs in Research - Issues

Does the PHS Policy apply to live embryonated eggs?

Although avian and other egg-laying vertebrate species develop backbones prior to hatching, OLAW interprets the PHS Policy as applicable to their offspring only after hatching.  (The female egg-laying animal would be covered by the Policy.)  Reference:  OLAW website, frequently asked questions.

 

Other considerations in use of embryonated chicken eggs (age of concern for  chicken embryos)?

Although pre-18 day chicken embryos cannot survive ex ovo, regulatory agency concern stems from the possibility that, if not closely monitored, eggs could progress to hatching prior to their use. This would result in live animals, which are regulated under both PHS policy and AR 40-33 (which references The Guide). Thus you should ensure investigators use eggs prior to this time.

Incubation period for chicken?  Pigeon?

 

See http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/faqs.htm or go to OLAW website and search “embryonated eggs”

 

PART II:  Anatomy, Biology, Handling, Husbandry

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crop – storage/moistening

Proventriculus

Glandular stomach

Enzymatic breakdown

Ventriculus (gizzard)

Muscular stomach

Mechanical breakdown

Ceca

Nonfunctional

Cloaca / vent

 

 

Behavior

Excited by movement or noise.

Birds in groups "pecking order," or hierarchy.

Remove tip of beak to control pecking damage 

“Pinioning” to control flight

Surgical

Only one wing!

Remove primary flight feathers

Temp measure

Nonsurgical

Husbandry

Temperature and Humidity

Poultry - NIH Guide

Relative Humidity = 30 - 70 %

Dry-Bulb Temperature = 16 - 27 C or 61 - 81 F

Recommendations are for chickens = or > 6 weeks

Brooding chicks – starts 90 deg F @ day 1, decreases

Different species have different optimal requirements

Husbandry

Husbandry

Diet – well-known for domestic species

Protein

Ca:P

Carotenoids

Grit

 

 

 

 

Acceptable:

Barbiturates, inhalants, CO2, CO, gunshot (free-range only)

 

Conditionally acceptable:

N2, Ar

Cervical dislocation – poultry and other small birds

Decapitation

Thoracic compression (small-to-med-sized, free-ranging only)

Maceration

 

Maceration:

Relatively “new” procedure

 Day-old poultry and embryonated eggs

Safe, large numbers, effective

Caveats – special equipment, prevent backlog

QUESTIONS?

PART III:  Diseases

Bacterial Diseases
Colibacillosis

Colibacillosis and Coligranuloma (Hjarre’s Disease)

Etiology -  Escherichia coli  (“APEC”)                     

 

Polyserositis, air sacculitis, fibrinous pericariditis and fibrinous perihepatitis

 

Also: 

Acute septicemia w/ sudden death

Coligranulomas in GI and liver (Hjarre’s disease)

Omphalitis, salpingitis

Arthritis

Bacterial Diseases
Colibacillosis

 

Necropsy - 

Air Sacculitis

Fibrinous Pericarditis

Perihepatitis

Granulomas of intestine

 

DDX (granuloma) – ??

 

Lab Dx - Isolation of organism, staining

Recent Concepts in APEC

             J. Bacteriology, April 2007, Vol 189 No. 8 3228-3236 

 

ExPEC = E. coli that causes disease outside GI tract

Includes:

UPEC

APEC

ExPEC share many traits…thus APEC may be able to cause disease in humans

Other references support this possibility

Bacterial Diseases
Fowl Cholera (P. multocida)

Host:  All poultry

Mainly turkeys + waterfowl

 

Etiology -  P. multocida

Gram – NEG rod

Subspecies multocida, septica and gallicida

 

Clinical Signs (wide range mild  severe)

 

Acute septicemic  - cyanotic, oral/nasal discharge, comb swollen

Chronic

Swollen wattles, cheesy exudate URT, loss of balance, twisting of head/neck

Bacterial Diseases
Fowl Cholera (P. multocida)

Necropsy –

Acute - Pericarditis, perihepatitis, or no lesions

Chronic – Abscessation/caseous exudate in URT, swollen liver w/multifocal hepatic necrosis, peritonitis, oophoritis

 

Differential Diagnosis -  Erysipelas, colibacillosis, other bacterial dz

 

Lab DX – PCR available

Bacterial Diseases
Clostridium perfringens

Necrotic Enteritis (domestic and wildfowl)

Cholangiohepatitis (chickens)

 

Toxins A+C, usually A

Fecal-oral, flies, feed

 

Clinical Signs

Severe - widespread depression and/or mortality

Mild  – significant decrease in production

Bacterial Diseases
Clostridium perfringens

Necrotic Enteritis

 

Necropsy:  Fibrinonecrotic enteritis of the small intestine

Bacterial Diseases
Limberneck (Cl. Botulinum)

Botulism (Limberneck, Western Duck Sickness)

 

Etiology -  Clostridium botulinum toxin

Transmission - ingestion of preformed toxin

usually wet, moldy feed

Clinical: Progressive paralysis of legs, wings and neck.

Necropsy : Absence of lesions

 

Bacterial Diseases
Wing Rot (Clostridium +/- Staph)

Gangrenous Dermatitis (Wing Rot)

 

Etiology -  Cl. septicum , Cl. perfringens and/or Staphylococcus aureus (toxins)

 

Chickens + turkeys

 

Transmission –

Contaminated wounds

Secondary to immunosuppression

Bacterial Diseases
Wing Rot

Clinical Signs  (4-16 wks old)

Wet gangrene of wing + leg skin

 

Necropsy :

Necrosis of skin and underlying area

Bacterial Diseases
Ulcerative Enteritis (Cl. Colinum)

“Quail Disease” - Clostridium colinum

(also in chickens)

 

Clinical:

High morbidity and mortality in quail, low mortality in other birds

Listlessness and diarrhea

Misspelling very simple words…on camera

 

Necropsy:

Deep ulcers in intestines, can perforate

Liver necrosis

 

Bacterial Diseases
Erysipelas

Red Skin Disease

 

Etiology -  Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

 

Clinical Signs –

Rapid onset

Diarrhea and increasing morbidity and mortality

Swollen snood of male turkeys

Bacterial Diseases
Erysipelas

 

Necropsy:

Related to septicemia and vasculitis

Bacterial Diseases
“Name the Disease”

 

Etiology - ????

Slow-spreading,  chronic

Animal bird  bird   animal

Including rodents

 Clinical:

 Emaciation

Depressed

Unkempt

Diarrhea

Unilateral lameness (if progresses to bone)

Bacterial Diseases
Tuberculosis

 

Necropsy

Emaciation

Irregular nodules in liver, spleen, intestine

Granulomas of liver and spleen

 

DDX – nodules

Diagnosis -  

Acid fast bacilli in the liver and spleen

Bacterial Diseases
Pullorum Disease (S. pullorum)

 

Salmonella pullorum

Aka Bacillary White Diarrhea

Chickens, others

 

Clinical:

White pasting around vents

Swelling of joints

Mortality 90 - 100%

Bacterial Diseases
Pullorum Disease

 

Necropsy: 

 

Signs of septicemia

(like some other Salmonella spp)

Myocarditis

Pericarditis

Atrophied ovaries

Grey  or white nodules or plaques on spleen, liver, lung, heart, peritoneum and intestine

Cecal cores

Bacterial Diseases
Fowl Typhoid (S. gallinarum)

 

Salmonella gallinarum

 

Clinical: 

Ruffled feathers

Pale heads

Shrunken combs

Diarrhea

Bacterial Diseases
Fowl typhoid (S. gallinarum)

Necropsy:

Liver

Bronze and swollen

Spleen

Enlarged, mottled, brittle

 

DDX:

Pullorum disease

Paratyphoid disease

Bacterial Diseases
Infectious Coryza (Avibacterium)

 

Hemophilus paragallinarum

(Now Avibacterium paragallinarum)

 

Clinical:

Sudden onset with high morbidity

Decrease in growth /egg production

 

Necropsy:

Catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses

 

DDX: Mycoplasma, laryngotracheitis

DX: Gram stain sinus exudate

 

Bacterial Diseases

Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis)

 

Etiology -  Chlamydophila psittaci

Wide bird host range (not chickens)

ZOONOTIC

Transmission -  Inhalation and ingestion

Clinical Signs -  Respiratory signs and diarrhea..

Bacterial Diseases

Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Enlarged congested spleen VERY common

 

Also:  Air sacculitis, pericarditis, and perihepatitis

But these similar to other diseases

 

Diagnosis -  Impression smears of the air sacs and spleen. 

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases
Fowl Pox

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases
ILT (Herpesvirus)

Chickens most commonly

 

Clinical

Marked dyspnea

“Pump handle” breathing

+/-  expectoration of blood and head shaking

Respiratory distress

Viral Diseases
ILT

Necropsy

Laryngitis, tracheitis

+/- Necrosis

Blood clots, caseous cores possible

 

Eosinophili INIB in tracheal epithelium pathognomonic

+/- syncytia

 

Prevention -  Modified live vaccine

Viral Diseases
Newcastle Disease (Paramyxovirus)

 

Aka Avian Pneumoencephalitis

 

3 Strains (lentogenic, mesogenic, and velogenic)

 

Wide host range susceptible (wilddomestic) but severity differs

 

Clinical:

Sudden onset respiratory signs

Anorexia

Decreased egg production/quality.

Nervous signs

Mortality high, up to 100%

Viral Diseases
Newcastle Disease

 

Necropsy

Mesogenic - tracheitis (with edema) and air sacculitis

Velogenic –

proventriculitis may be first sign

 GI hemorrhages

 

Diagnosis -  FA and HI tests

Prevention - Vaccines available

 

Viral Diseases
Avian Influenza (Orthomyxovirus)

Viral Diseases
Avian Influenza

Clinical signs / Lesions:

Attacks vascular endothelium, respiratory and GI tract epithelium

Respiratory signs most common

Blood-stained oral + nasal

     discharges common

 

Cutaneous hemorrhages in comb, wattle and shank

Epicardial petechia or hemorrhage

 

 

Avian Influenza + ND
Possible Bioterrorism Weapons?

OIE – Office Internationale Epizootique

Animal health and sanitary standards

Under the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Their List A contains the highly virulent forms of AI and ND viruses

AI and ND can cause massive mortality and destruction, AI can be zoonotic

Avian Leukosis Complex

Viral Diseases
Marek’s Disease (MD, Range Paralysis)

Viral Diseases
Marek’s Disease

Necropsy :

Tumors of visceral organs

Enlarged nerves

sciatic and brachial

SQ lymphomas

 

Viral Diseases
Lymphoid Leukosis

Viral Diseases
Lymphoid Leukosis



 

Both produce tumors

Tumors of Bursa rare in MD, ALWAYS in LL

LL does not affect nerves

Gray eyes, feather follicle inflammation and muscle tumors occur in MD not in LL

 

Viral Diseases
 Infectious Bursal Disease

Viral Diseases

Infectious Bursal Disease

Necropsy Findings

Acute - Bursal swelling with hemorrhage, edema and necrosis

Chronic - Atrophy

 

Parasitic Diseases
Coccidiosis

Etiology - Host specific Eimeria

E. acervulina  - Anterior 1/3

E. necatrix, E. maxima - Middle 1/3

E. brunetti, E. tenella - Posterior 1/3

 

Transmission -   Fecal-oral

 

Clinical Signs - 

Most severe in birds 2 - 8 weeks old

Diarrhea +/- blood, etc.

Parasitic Diseases

Necropsy:

Enteritis

+/- hemorrhage + /-sloughing

Cecal cores

 

Diagnosis:

Scrapings and histopath

 

Histomonas meleagridis

TURKEYS

Necropsy:

Fibrinonecrotic typhlitis with

    caseous core formation

 Depressed (target) lesions

     that vary in color (pathognomonic)

DDX:  Coccidia, Salmonella

Mycotic Diseases
Brooder Pneumonia (Aspergillus)

Aspergillus fumigatus

Poor management, stress

Dyspnea, gasping

Lesions:

Yellow or gray nodules in

lungs, air sacs, trachea

Can met to CNS

 Mycotic Diseases

Candidiasis (thrush)

Candida albicans

Usually secondary

Pseudomembranes,

caseous sloughing

 

STUMP THE CHUMP

 

 

 

ICCVAM?

Meleagris gallopavo = ????

Chickens < 0.25 kg require how much space per The Guide?  0.25 up to 0.5 kg?

AVMA Panel re: birds

Parrots – key points

ICE?

 

 

A lack of what nutrient can cause these lesions in chicks?

 

What occurs in the gizzard?  What is it’s “big-person  vocabulary” name?

The shell gland is aka________.

The soft shell membranes are laid down in this portion of the oviduct…_______.

Incubation for chicken is approximately ___ days.

Only the _____ oviduct is functional in birds.

Fowl cholera is caused by __________

Ulcerative enteritis is common in ____ and is caused by____________

 

In Erysipelas, lesions are consistent with ______.

The cause of brooder pneumonia is ________.

The cause of fowl typhoid is ______ and a classic lesion is a ____________.

Does PHS policy apply to eggs?

The ICE test is an alternative to ____ and has been supported by ICCVAM in a tiered strategy for testing ____ irritants.

The AVMA Guidelines on euthanasia indicate that a new method, _____, may be used in ____ and ______  ____; this method is equivalent to ___ & ______ _____.

Newcastle disease is caused by a __________.

 

Avian Biology, Care, Diseases, Models and Uses in Research

Calvin B. Carpenter, LTC, VC

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

Taxonomy

Kingdom - Animal

Phylum - Chordata

Class - Aves

Order - 27 orders with 8600 species

Taxonomy

Five most commonly used orders:

Galliformes

Anseriformes

Columbiformes

Passeriformes (Passerines)

Psittaciformes (Psittacines)

Taxonomy

Chicken - Gallus domesticus

Japanese quail - Coturnix coturnix japonica

Turkey - Meleagridis gallopavo

Homing/Racing Pigeons - Columba livia

Muscovy duck - Cairina moschata

White Pekin Duck - Anas platyrhynchos

Budgerigar - Melopsittacus undulatus

Research Uses

The Bird as a Research Animal

Fast maturing

Highly inbred

Great statistical confidence

Isolation reared

Models of Human Diseases

Accurately reproduce the disease

Available

Exportable

Adequate Size

Relatively easy to handle

Survive long enough to obtain required information

 

 

 

 

 

The Egg

Bacterial and Viral cultures

Chorioallantoic Membrane

Replacement for the Draize test

Behavior

Easily excited by sudden movement or loud noises.

Birds maintained in groups develop the classic "pecking order," or hierarchy.

Removing the tip of the upper beak sometimes helps control cannibalism or severe fighting in flocks. 

Birds' flight can be controlled by pinioning,  Only one wing should be pinioned.

Husbandry

Temperature and Humidity

Poultry - NIH Guide

Relative Humidity = 30 - 70 %

Dry-Bulb Temperature = 16 - 27 C or 61 - 81 F

Recommendations are for chickens 6 weeks of age or older.  Higher temperatures are required for brooding chicks.

Husbandry

Husbandry

Husbandry

Diet

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bacterial Diseases

Colibacillosis and Coligranuloma (Hjarre’s Disease)

Etiology -  Escherichia coli                        Serotypes:  01:K1, 02:K1, 078:K80

Usually see an air sacculitis, fibrinous pericariditis and fibrinous perihepatitis

Also see acute septicemia with sudden death, coligranulomas in the GI and liver (Hjarre’s disease), omphalitis, salpingitis and arthritis.

Bacterial Diseases

Colibacillosis and Coligranuloma (Hjarre’s Disease)

Necropsy Findings -  Air Sacculitis, Fibrinous Pericarditis and Perihepatitis.  Granulomas of the intestine

Diagnosis - Isolation of organism

Bacterial Diseases

Fowl Cholera (Pasteurellosis)

 

Etiology -  Pasteurella multocida

Clinical Signs -  Affects young adults, sudden death in the acute form.  

Bacterial Diseases

Fowl Cholera (Pasteurellosis)

 

Necropsy Findings –

Peracute - death    

Acute - Pericarditis, Perihepatitis 

Chronic - Abscessation of the wattles, joints, conjunctival sac, infraorbital sinus, and the middle ear

Differential Diagnosis -  Erysipelas in turkeys and colibacillosis in chickens.

Bacterial Diseases

Necrotic Enteritis

 

Etiology -  Clostridium perfringens

Clinical Signs - Usually male broilers, 2 - 8 weeks of age, depression and mortality of 1% daily for 7 days.

Bacterial Diseases

Necrotic Enteritis

 

Necropsy Findings -  Fibrinonecrotic enteritis of the small intestine.

Bacterial Diseases

Botulism (Limberneck, Western Duck Sickness)

 

Etiology -  Clostridium botulinum toxin

Transmission - ingestion of preformed toxin, usually in wet, moldy feed.

Clinical Signs - Progressive paralysis on the legs, wings and neck.

Necropsy Findings - Absence of lesions

 

Bacterial Diseases

Gangrenous Dermatitis (Wing Rot)

 

Etiology -  Clostridium septicum and Staphylococcus aureus (toxin)

Transmission - Contaminated skin wounds

Clinical Signs -  4 - 16 week old chickens and turkeys.  Sudden increase in morbidity and mortality.  Wet gangrene of the skin on the wings and legs.

Bacterial Diseases

Gangrenous Dermatitis (Wing Rot)

 

Necropsy Findings - necrosis of the skin and underlying areas.

Bacterial Diseases

Ulcerative Enteritis (Quail Disease)

 

Etiology -  Clostridium colinum

Clinical Signs -  High morbidity and mortality in quail, low mortality in chicken and turkey poults.  Listlessness and diarrhea.

Necropsy Findings -  Deep ulcers in the intestines, Can perforate.  Diffuse areas of necrosis in the liver.

Bacterial Diseases

Erysipelas (Red Skin Disease)

 

Etiology -  Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Clinical Signs - Rapid onset with diarrhea and increasing morbidity and mortality.  Swollen snood of male turkeys.

Bacterial Diseases

Erysipelas (Red Skin Disease)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Related to septicemia and vasculitis.

Prevention - Turkey poults vaccinated at 16 - 20 weeks, keep segregated when young.

Bacterial Diseases

Tuberculosis

 

Etiology -  Mycobacterium avium, Serovars 1 and 2

Clinical Signs -  Emaciation

Bacterial Diseases

Tuberculosis

 

Necropsy Findings -  Emaciation, nodules in the intestinal tract and discrete granulomas of the liver and spleen.

Diagnosis -   Acid fast bacilli in the liver and spleen.  Can test with avian tuberculins.

Bacterial Diseases

Paratyphoid Infection

 

Etiology - Most common - Salmonella typhimurium

Clinical Signs - Pasting of vents and huddling near heat sources.  High morbidity and mortality.

Bacterial Diseases

Paratyphoid Infection

 

Necropsy Findings -  Dehydration, enteritis and focal necrosis of the intestinal mucosa.  Cheesy cecal cores.

Diagnosis - Isolation and identification of the organism.  Plate agglutination test.

Bacterial Diseases

Pullorum Disease

 

Etiology -  Salmonella pullorum

Clinical Signs -  Young chicks and poults show white pasting around vents and huddling around heat sources.  Mortality 90 - 100%

Bacterial Diseases

Pullorum Disease

 

Necropsy Findings -  Adults - myocarditis, pericarditis and atrophied ovaries.  Young birds - grey nodules on the spleen, liver, lung, heart, peritoneum and intestine.

Diagnosis - Serum agglutination test 

Bacterial Diseases

Fowl Typhoid

 

Etiology -  Salmonella gallinarum

Clinical Signs -  Chickens - ruffled feathers, pale heads, shrunken combs and diarrhea.

Bacterial Diseases

Fowl Typhoid

 

Necropsy Findings -  Bile-stained liver, bronze and swollen. 

Differential Diagnosis -  Pullorum disease and Paratyphoid

Bacterial Diseases

Chronic Respiratory Disease, CRD, PPLO, Infectious Sinusitis of Turkeys

 

Etiology -  Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Transmission -  Transovarian and aerosol

Clinical Signs - Coughing, sneezing, decreased egg production.

Bacterial Diseases

Chronic Respiratory Disease, CRD, PPLO, Infectious Sinusitis of Turkeys

 

Necropsy Findings -  Air sacculitis, sinusitis, can have secondary bacterial infections.

Diagnosis -  Agglutination test, isolation

Bacterial Diseases

Mycoplasma meleagridis infection

 

Etiology -  Mycoplasma meleagridis

Transmission -  Transovarian, Semen

Clinical Signs - Mild respiratory signs, poor growth, crooked necks, and leg weaknesses.

Bacterial Diseases

Mycoplasma meleagridis infection

 

Necropsy Findings -  Air sacculitis, sinusitis and synovitis.

Diagnosis -  Plate agglutination tests, Isolation

Bacterial Diseases

Mycoplasma synoviae Infection

 

Etiology -  Mycoplasma synoviae

Transmission -  Transovarian

Clinical Signs - Lameness and crouching.  Retarded growth.

Bacterial Diseases

Mycoplasma synoviae Infection

 

Necropsy Findings -  Yellow exudate mainly in the leg and wing joints.  Swollen foot pads.

Diagnosis -  Plate agglutination test

Bacterial Diseases

Omphalitis (Navel ill)

 

Etiology -  Excessive humidity and opportunistic bacteria.

Clinical Signs - Depression and huddling, scab over and unhealed navel.  Mortality 3 - 4 days post-hatching.

Bacterial Diseases

Omphalitis (Navel ill)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Infected navel, unabsorbed yolks, and extensive peritonitis.

Diagnosis -  Isolation and Identification of the organism.

Bacterial Diseases

Infectious Coryza

 

Etiology - Hemophilus paragallinarium

Clinical Signs - Sudden onset with high morbidity, decrease in growth and egg production

Necropsy Findings - Catarrhal inflammation of the nasal passages and sinuses

Diagnosis - Gram stain of sinus exudate

 

Bacterial Diseases

Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis)

 

Etiology -  Chlamydophilia psittaci

Transmission -  Inhalation and ingestion

Clinical Signs -  Respiratory signs and diarrhea.  Mortality up to 25% in turkeys.

Bacterial Diseases

Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Enlarged congested spleen.  Air sacculitis, pericarditis, and perihepatitis.

Diagnosis -  Impression smears of the air sacs and spleen. 

Bacterial Diseases

Spirochetosis

Etiology -  Borrelia anserina

Transmission - Fecal-oral and through blood-sucking arthropods (Argas persicus)

Clinical Signs -  Affected birds are droopy, weak in the legs, feverish, thirsty and havve a yellow-green diarrhea.

Necropsy Findings -  Swollen spleen with ecchymotic hemorrhages, enlarged, pale heart and an enlarged liver.

 

Bacterial Diseases

Staphylococcus Arthritis

Etiology -  Staphylococcus aureus

Transmission - Wound infections, Injuries

Clinical Signs -  Hot, swollen, painful joints with a purulent exudate

Necropsy Findings -  Tenosynovitis

Diagnosis -  Isolation of the organism.

Bacterial Diseases

Bumblefoot

Etiology -  Staphylococcus aureus

Transmission -  Contaminated wound

Clinical Signs - Local lesion of the foot and foot pad

Necropsy Findings -  Synovitis and arthritis.

 

Break?

Viral Diseases

Inclusion Body Hepatitis (Hemorrhagic Anemia Syndrome)

Etiology -  Adenovirus, often dual infection with Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD)

Clinical Signs -  Sudden mortality, pale combs and wattles, depression, anemia

Necropsy Findings -  Enlarged, hemorrhagic livers, petechiae in skeletal muscle and skin.

Diagnosis -  INIB in liver necrosis, Agar gel precipitin test.

Viral Diseases

Quail Bronchitis

Etiology -  Adenovirus Strain CELO (Chick Embryo Lethal Orphan)

Clinical Signs -  quail less than 4 weeks - coughing, sneezing, rales, and huddling.  Mortality ranges from 10 - 100%

Necropsy Findings -  Tracheal and bronchial mucus.  Air sacculitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, tracheitis, and infraorbital sinusitis.  INIB early

 

Viral Diseases

Hemorrhagic Enteritis of Turkeys

Etiology -  Adenovirus

Clinical Signs – Depression, bloody stools in turkeys over 4 wks. Mortality usually 5-10%. 

Necropsy Findings – Intestinal hemorrhage. Spleen enlarged and mottled.

Prevention -  Oral Vaccine

 

Viral Diseases

Marble Spleen Disease of Pheasants

 

Etiology -  Adenovirus

Clinical Signs - Peracute, sudden death, in young adults (4 - 8 months of age)

Viral Diseases

Marble Spleen Disease of Pheasants

 

Necropsy Findings -  Large mottled spleens with INIB and severe pulmonary edema

Diagnosis -  Agar gel precipitin tests

INIB in spleen are pathognomonic

Prevention - Live virus vaccine

 

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

 

Etiology -  Herpesvirus

Clinical Signs -  Marked dyspnea, “pump handle” breathing, can have expectoration of blood and head shaking

Viral Diseases

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

 

Necropsy Findings -  larynx and trachea inflamed with blood clots and caseous cores

Diagnosis -  ELISA, viral isolation, INIB in tracheal epithelium pathognomonic

Prevention -  Modified live vaccine

Viral Diseases

Newcastle’s Disease (Avian Pneumoencephalitis)

 

Etiology -  Paramyxovirus , 3 Strains (lentogenic, mesogenic, and velogenic)

Clinical Signs - Sudden onset of respiratory signs and anorexia, Decrease in egg production and quality.  Nervous signs in young chicks - “star-gazers”.  Mortality high, up to 100%

Viral Diseases

Newcastle’s Disease (Avian Pneumoencephalitis)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Mesogenic - tracheitis and air sacculitis. Velogenic - massive GI hemorrhages.

Diagnosis -  FA and HI tests

Prevention - Vaccines available

 

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Infectious Bronchitis

 

Etiology -  Coronavirus

Clinical Signs - 

Young birds - sudden onset of respiratory signs, huddling toward heat.

Adults - Severe respiratory signs with a severe drop in egg production

Viral Diseases

Infectious Bronchitis

 

Necropsy Findings -  Air sacculitis and tracheitis with mucus plugs

Diagnosis -  Isolation - 9 - 12 day old chick embryos, Serum neutralization test

Prevention - Killed vaccines

Viral Diseases

Avian Encephalomyelitis (Epidemic Tremor)

 

Etiology -  Picornavirus

Transmission -  Vertical - egg, Lateral - fecal-oral

Clinical Signs -  Ataxia, progressing to paralysis, fine tremors of the head and neck in birds less than 7 weeks.

Viral Diseases

Avian Encephalomyelitis (Epidemic Tremor)

 

Necropsy Findings -  No gross lesions, Lymphocytic encephalomyelitis

Diagnosis -  Direct FA, serum neutralization, isolation and histopathology

Prevention - Vaccines available

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Marek’s Disease (MD, Range Paralysis)

 

Etiology -  Herpesvirus, serotype 1

Transmission -  Lateral through the dander

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Marek’s Disease (MD, Range Paralysis)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Tumors of visceral organs, enlarged sciatic and brachial nerves

Diagnosis - Differentiate from LL

Prevention -  Depopulate, Vaccines (HVT & HVT-SB1)

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases

Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro Disease, Avian AIDS)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Bursal swelling with hemorrhage, edema and necrosis.  Chronic - Atrophy.

Diagnosis -  Serum neutralization test, EM, ELISA, agar gel precipitation test, Fluorescent antibody or inoculation of the CAM

Prevention - Vaccination of breeders

Viral Diseases

Chick Anemia Agent

 

Etiology -  Circodnavirus, SS DNA

Transmission -  Vertical and Lateral

Clinical Signs -  Anemia

Necropsy Findings -  Pale bone marrow, atrophy of the bursa, thymus, and spleen.  Immunosuppression

Differential Diagnosis -  IBD

Prevention -  Vaccination of breeders

Viral Diseases

West Nile Virus Infection

Etiology – West Nile Virus (flavivirus) 

Transmission – Culex Mosquitoes

Parasitic Diseases

Coccidiosis

 

Etiology - Host specific species of Eimeria

E. acervulina  - Anterior 1/3

E. necatrix, E. maxima - Middle 1/3

E. brunetti, E. tenella - Posterior 1/3

Transmission -   Fecal-oral

Clinical Signs -  Most severe in birds 2 - 8 weeks old.

Parasitic Diseases

Coccidiosis

 

Necropsy Findings -  Mild to severe enteritis

Diagnosis -  Direct gut scrapings and Histo

Prevention - Anticoccidials in the feed.  Small exposures stimulate immunity

Treatment - Amprolium, Agribon, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxiline. Vit A and K

Parasitic Diseases

Histomoniasis (Blackhead, Infectious Enterohepatitis)

Etiology -  Histomonas meleagridis, protozoa

Transmission -  3 routes.

Histomonas in feed

Histomonas in ova of cecal worm (Heterakis gallinarium)

Earthworms with Histomonas infected Heterakis larvae

Clinical Signs - High mortality in turkeys, listlessness, anorexia, drooping wings, yellow feces, cyanosis of the head parts.

Parasitic Diseases

Histomoniasis (Blackhead, Infectious Enterohepatitis)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Bilateral fibrinonecrotic typhlitis with caseous core formation.  Liver contains irregularly-round, depressed lesions that vary in color (Pathognomonic).

Prevention - Antihistomonal drugs in the feed.  Do not mix turkeys with other birds.  Deworm for cecal worms.

Parasitic Diseases

Leukocytozoon (Turkey Malaria)

 

Etiology -  Leukocytozoon smithi

Transmission -  Transmitted by black flies and midges

Clinical Signs -  Usually none

Necropsy Findings -  Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, anemia.

Diagnosis -  Gametocytes in WBC’s and RBC’s.  Schizonts in liver, spleen and brain.

 

Parasitic Diseases

Trichomoniasis

 

Etiology -  Trichomonas  gallinae (Protozoa)

Transmission -  Contaminated water

Clinical Signs -  difficulty closing their mouth, drooling and repeated swallowing

Necropsy Findings - Yellow plagues or raised cheesy masses in the upper digestive tract.

Parasitic Diseases

Syngamus trachea (Gapeworms)

 

Etiology -  Syngamus trachea

Transmission -  Direct life cycle.  Earthworms and snails can be vectors.

Clinical Signs -  Tracheal lumen obstruction with dyspnea and death.

Necropsy Findings -  Tracheal obstruction

Diagnosis -  Adult worm in trachea

Parasitic Diseases

Ascaridiasis (Roundworms)

 

Etiology - 

Ascaridia galli

A. numidae

A. columbae

A. dissimilis

A. compar

Transmission -  Lateral, direct life cycle

Clinical Signs -  Decreased egg production, poor growth and vigor.

Parasitic Diseases

Ascaridiasis (Roundworms)

 

Necropsy Findings -  enteritis, anemia and retarded growth.  Can block the intestines.

Prevention -  Depopulation and disinfection, rotate ranges.

Parasitic Diseases

Capillariasis (Hairworm, Cropworm)

 

Etiology - 

Capillaria obsignata

C. columbae

C. contorta

Clinical Signs - Diarrhea, emaciation and death

Parasitic Diseases

Capillariasis (Hairworm, Cropworm)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Enteritis

Diagnosis -  Nematodes washed from mucosal scrapings

Parasitic Diseases

Mites

 

Kneumidocoptes mutans  - Scaly Leg Mite

Transmission -  Slow spread 

Clinical Signs -  Thickened and hyperkeratotic skin.

Necropsy Findings -  Organism lives in the unfeathered skin of the shanks and feet

Parasitic Diseases

Mites

Ornithonyssus sylivarum - Northern Fowl Mite

Clinical Signs -  Anemia and death in the young.  May transmit other diseases

Diagnosis -  Examination of the vent region.  Mite is on the animal during the day and night.

Parasitic Diseases

Mites

Dermanyssus gallinae - Red Mite, chicken mite, roost mite or poultry mite.

Clinical Signs - Anemia and death in the young

Necropsy Findings -  Ulcers and erosions on the skin surface.

Diagnosis -  Identification of the mite.  Only on the bird at night.  In the environment during the day.

 

Lice

Ectoparasites in a pigeon colony. Comp Med. 2000 Apr;50(2):229-30.

Mycotic Diseases

Aspergillosis (Brooder Pneumonia)

Etiology -  Aspergillus fumigatus

Transmission -  inhalation

Clinical Signs -  Dyspnea and gasping

Necropsy Findings -  Yellow or grey nodules or plagues in the lungs, air sacs or trachea.  Can be in the abdominal cavity, CNS, and eye. 

Diagnosis -  Culture on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar.

Mycotic Diseases

Mycotic Diseases

Candidiasis (Moniliasis, Crop Mycosis, Thrush)

 

Necropsy Findings -  Diffuse or focal thickening of the affected mucosa with white or grey pseudomembranous or diphtheritic patches

Nutritional Diseases

Nutritional Diseases

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin E Deficiency (Crazy Chick Disease)

 

Etiology - Rations high in polyunsaturated fats or rancid fats.

Clinical Signs -  3 syndromes

Encephalomalacia

Exudative Diathesis

Muscular Dystrophy

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin E Deficiency (Crazy Chick Disease)

Necropsy Findings - 

Encephalomalacia - Swollen, congested, Hemorrhagic cerebellum

Exudative Diathesis - Blood stained edema in the skin and subcutis

Muscular Dystrophy - White to yellow muscle fibers in the skeletal muscles.

Diagnosis -  Feed analysis, signs and lesions

Nutritional Diseases

Rickets/Osteoporosis (Cage Layer Fatigue)

 

Etiology - Calcium, Phosphorus or Vit D3 Deficiency or imbalance.

Clinical Signs -  Young birds have a stiff-legged gait and the ends of the long bones are enlarged.  Laying birds lay thin-shelled eggs, become paralyzed and die.

Nutritional Diseases

Rickets/Osteoporosis (Cage Layer Fatigue)

 

Necropsy Findings - Enlarged parathyroids. Young birds have soft, rubbery bones, and S shaped keel and epiphyseal enlargement of the long bones.  Laying birds have osteoperosis.

Diagnosis -  Analysis of bone ash and feed

Prevention -  Oyster shell or limestone supplement

Treatment - Calcium carbonate

Nutritional Diseases

Pantothenic Acid Deficiency

 

Etiology - Part of Coenzyme A

Clinical Signs - Dermatitis, scabs at the commisure of the mouth and on the eyelids, poor growth, death.

Necropsy Findings -  Grey-white exudate in the proventriculus and mouth, myelin degeneration in the spinal cord and nerves. 

Treatment - Reversible with proper treatment

Nutritional Diseases

Biotin Deficiency

 

Etiology -  Uncooked egg white (avidin) in the diet

Clinical Signs -  Dermatitis around the beak, eyelids and feet.  Perosis

Necropsy Findings -

Differential Diagnosis -  Riboflavin and Pantothenic acid Deficiency, Pox and ectoparasites

Treatment - injection of biotin produces a quick recovery.

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin B1 Deficiency  (Thiamin)

 

Etiology - Important in carbohydrate metabolism

Clinical Signs -   “Star gazing”  due to anterior neck paralysis.

Necropsy Findings -  Polyneuritis

Diagnosis -  Clinical signs

Treatment - Oral sdminstration of thiamin

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin K Deficiency

 

Etiology - Required for prothrombin synthesis.  Sulfaquinoxaloine may increas the incidence and severity of the condition

Clinical Signs -  Anemia, Cutaneous hemorrhages of the legs, wings and breast.  Can have internal hemorrhage.

Treatment - menodione sodium bisulfate

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin B12 Deficiency (Cobalamin)

 

Etiology -  Involved in nucleic acid, methyl synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. 

Clinical Signs -  Anemia, retarded growth, death.

Treatment - Intramuscular administrration of Vitamin B12

Nutritional Diseases

Vitamin B2 Deficiency (Riboflavin)

 

Etiology - Cofactor in many enzyme systems

Clinical Signs -  Weakness, emaciation, walk on their hocks, toes curled inward, can have dermatitis

Necropsy Findings -  Swelling and softening of the sciatic and brachial nerves.

Differential Diagnosis -  Marek’s disease

Treatment - 100 ug of riboflavin SID for 2 days

Nutritional Diseases

Perosis (Slipped Tendon)

 

Etiology -  manganese or choline

Clinical Signs - A swollen and malpositioned hock in fast growing birds (few weeks to a few months).

Necropsy Findings -  Hock is flattened, widened and enlarged initially and later the distal leg deviates laterally and the  tendon slips.

Diagnosis - Lesions and feed analysis.

Treatment - None

Nutritional Diseases

Tibial Dyschondroplasia

 

Etiology - Chlorine imbalance with sodium and potassium

Clinical Signs -  bilateral bowing of the tibias anteriolaterally.

Necropsy Findings -  Abnormal cartilage mass in the proximal tibias

Nutritional Diseases

Articular Gout

 

Etiology - Excessive urates due to increased synthesis or decrease elimination.

Clinical Signs -  Swollen feet and toes

Necropsy Findings -  Chalk-like uric acid crystals on the visceral surfaces, in tendon sheaths and on articular cartilages.

Treatment - Supplement with Vit A, management

 

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