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GERMAN STATES - PRUSSIA
(SAME TIME AS THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ERA)
30 EINEN THALER
1 SILBER GROSCHEN
Value - 1 Silber Groschen (1/30)
Weight - 2.1900 g
Diameter - 18 mm
Thickness - 1.3 mm
Obverse Lettering: WILHELM KOENING VON PREUSSEN
30 EINEN THALER
1 SILBER GROSCHEN
RARE / OBSCURE/ HARD TO FIND!
The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia. Britain approved of it because London felt that there was need for a stable, peaceful power in central Europe that could discourage aggressive moves by France or Russia. According to Lee (1985), most historians have judged the Confederation to be weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to German nationalist aspirations. It collapsed due to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria (known as German dualism), warfare, the 1848 revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise.
In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state. Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the confederation briefly dissolved but was re-established in 1850.
The dispute between the two dominant member states of the confederation, Austria and Prussian, over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, and the collapse of the confederation. This resulted in the creation of the North German Confederation, with a number of south German states remaining independent, although allied first with Austria (until 1867) and subsequently with Prussia (until 1871), after which they became a part of the new German state.
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, following a crushing defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon resulting in the Treaty of Pressburg. Francis II continued to reign as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
Following the Battle of Austerlitz of December 1805 in the War of the Third Coalition, sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806. Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia, also joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Prussia, Danish Holstein, and Swedish Pomerania stayed outside of the Confederation of the Rhine.
These nations would later join in the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to 1814.
The German Confederation was created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
The original signatories of the act were:
8.Electorate of Hesse
9.Grande Duchy of Hesse
10.Denmark on account of Holstein
11.Netherlands on account of Luxemburg
31.Reuss, elder line
32.Reuss, younger line
To these were afterwards added:
Dissolution and Empire
The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867 which included Prussia but excluded Austria and the South German states. During November 1870 the four southern states joined the North German Confederation by treaty.
On 10 December 1870 the North German Confederation Reichstag renamed the Confederation as the German Empire and gave the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia as President of the Confederation. During the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Each of them had one vote in the Federal Assembly.
Three member states were ruled by foreign monarchs: the King of Denmark, the King of the Netherlands, and the King of Great Britain (until 1837) were members of the German Confederation; the first as Duke of Holstein, the second as Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Duke of Limburg, and the latter as King of Hanover. Each of them had a vote in the Federal Assembly.
Six other greater states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the King of Bavaria, the King of Saxony, the King of Württemberg, the prince-elector of Hesse, the Grand Duke of Baden and the Grand Duke of Hesse.
23 smaller and tiny member states shared five votes in the Federal Assembly.
The four free cities of Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Lübeck shared one vote in the Federal Assembly.
(THIS PICTURE FOR DISPLAY ONLY)
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