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Includes the Adobe Acrobat Reader for reading and printing publications.

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Contains the following key public domain (not copyrighted) U.S. Government publication(s) on one CD-ROM in both Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat PDF file formats:

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Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle, 2005, 124 pages

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Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle CPT Chad D. Foster Chief, NHP Clinical Medicine USAMRIID 26 Oct 05 Previously Presented By: CPT Curtis Klages – Goats CPT Christopher Keller – Sheep LTC Kelcin Buchanan – Sheep & Goats Purpose Outline Taxonomy Uses in research Sources/Evaluation Management and Husbandry Unique Biology Goat Normal Values Basic Nutrition Reproduction Behavior Diseases TaxonomySheep Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) Family: Bovidae Sub-family: Caprinae Genus and sub-genus: Ovis Domestic sheep = Ovis aries Subgenus Pachyceros includes the wild North American breeds BreedsSheep Meat Dorset, Columbia, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown, Border Cheviot Wool Merino, Rambouillet, Lincoln, Romney Hair Barbados Dual-Purpose: Targhee, Polypay TerminologySheep Female: ewe Intact Male: ram Young Animal: lamb Ewe lamb Ramb lamb Castrated Male: wether Birthing Process: lambing TaxonomyGoats Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) Family: Bovidae Sub-family: Caprinae Genus and sub-genus: Capra Capra hircus is domestic goat originated from western Asian goats Others include: Capra pyrenaica (Spanish goat) Capra ibex (Goats of the Red Sea and Caucasus area) Capra falconiere (wild goat of Afghanistan) BreedsGoats Dairy Nubian, Alpine, Toggenbutg, La Mancha, Saanen, Oberhaslie Fiber Angora, Cashmere Meat Boer, Sapel, Ma Tou, Kambling, Pygmy Leather Mubend (Uganda), Red Sokoto (West Africa) TerminologyGoats Female: doe or nanny Intact male: buck or billy Young goat: kid or goatling Young male: buckling Young female: doeling Castrated Male: wether or steer Birthing Process: kidding TaxonomyCattle Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Bovinae Genus & Species Bos taurus (domestic cattle) Bos indicus (Zebu cattle) BreedsCattle Dairy Holstein-Fresian (most common cow used as animal model), Jersey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn, Ayrshire, Guernsey Beef Angus, Hereford, Simmental TerminologyCattle Female: cow Intact Male: bull Young Animal: calf Female prior to first calf: heifer Castrated Male: steer Birthing Process: calving Uses in Research Ruminants Cardiac Research Transplantation, cardiac assist & prosthetics Reproductive Research Embryo transfer, AI, reproductive cycle control Genetics Gene transfer, cloning, nuclear transfer, genetic engineering Antibody Production Surgically Induced: Osteopenia, Fracture repair, ACL reconstruction (Sheep & Goats) Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models General Fetal & Reproductive Research Circadian Rhythms related to day-length Interaction between olfactory cues and behavior Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models Squamous Cell Carcinoma (No. 252) Animal: Ovine SCC Human: SCC Congenital Goiter (No. 350) Animal: Congenital Goiter in Merino Sheep Human: Congenital Goiter Intestinal Adenocarcinoma Animal: Adenocarcinoma of the SI of Sheep Human: Adenocarcinoma of the Human Colon Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 2) Animal: Dubin-Johnson Syndrome in Corriedale Dubin-Johnson Syndrome Hepatic organic anion excretory defect Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 8) Animal: Gilbert’s Syndrome in Southdown Sheep Human: Gilbert’s Syndrome Hepatic organic anion uptake defect Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models Muscular Dystrophy (No. 51) Animal: Congenital Progressive Ovine Muscular Dystrophy Human: Muscular Dystrophy Immune-Mediated Arthritis (No. 418) Animal: Lentivirus-induced arthritis of sheep & goats (OvLV & CAEV respectively) Human: Rheumatoid Arthritis Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models GM1 Gangliosidosis (No. 395) Animal: Ovine GM1 Gangliosidosis in Suffolk Human: GM1 Gangliosidosis Wilson’s Disease (No. 307) Animal: Chronic (cumulative) Cu Poisoning Human: Wilson’s Disease Induced model Uses in Research Sheep Disease Models Transmissible Spongiform Encephaolopathy Animal: Scrapie Human: Kuru, Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD) Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Dorsett Sheep Pulmonary Adenomatosis (jaagsiekte) Other Induced Models Arteriosclerosis Hemorrhagic shock Metabolic toxicosis Uses in Research Goats (General) Immunology Mastitis Nutrition Parasitology Vascular Uses in Research Goat Models Beta-Mannosidosis (No. 369) Animal: Beta-Mannosidosis in Nubian goats this inbred line of Nubians also serve as models for therapeutic cell transplantation strategies Human: Beta-Mannosidase Deficiency Congenital Myotonia Animal: Caprine Myotonia Congenita (“fainting goats”) Myotonia Congenita (Thompsen’s Disease) Uses in Research Goat Models Other disease models Osteoporosis Caprine Mucoploysaccharidosis IIID (Sanfillipo Syndrome Type D) Melanoma Inflammatory Bowel Disease Afibrinogenemia Hereditary Congenital Goiter Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (sx induced) Hyperimmune Serum Production Uses in Research Cattle (General) Permanent fistula ruminal fluid for research, teaching, treatment Infectious Diseases Metabolic Diseases Uses in Research Cattle Disease Models Tritrichomonas (Trichomonas) fetus Animal: Bovine Trichomoniasis Human: Trichomonis vaginalis infection Inherited Cardiomyopathies in Holstein-Fresian, Simmental-Red Holstein, Black Spotted Fresian, & Polled Hereford with wooly coat. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome Uses in Research Cattle Disease Models Lipofuscinosis in Ayrshires & Fresians Glycogenesis in Shorthorns & Brahmans Hereditary orotic aciduria in Holstein-Fresian & Fresian cattle Hereditary Zinc Deficiency in Holstein-Fresian & Fresian cattle Sources Commercial vendors USDA licensed dealers Health ScreeningSheep Diseases Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) Contagious Ecthyma Caseous lymphadenitis Johne’s Disease Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Internal Parasites (nasal bots, lungworms, intestinal worms) External Parasitism (sheep keds) Vaccinations Bluetongue Brucella ovis Campylobacter spp. Chlamydia Clostridial Diseases Pneumonia complex Ovine ecthyma Dichelobacter nodosus Arcanobacterium pseudotuberculosis Bacillus anthracis Fusobacterium necrophorum Health ScreeningGoats Diseases Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) CAE (caprine arthritis encephalitis) Brucellosis Tuberculosis Johne’s Disease Caseus lymphadenitis Contagious ecthyma Mycoplasma Vaccinations Tetanus & other Clostridial diseases Campylobacter spp. Chlamydia Caseous lymphadenitis Contagious ecthyma E. coli Fusobacterium necrophorum Health ScreeningCattle Screening Johne’s Disease Brucellosis Tuberculosis Respiratory Diseases Internal and External Parasites Foot Rot Hairy Heel Warts Health ScreeningCattle Essential Vaccinations Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus Parainfluenza-3 Leptospira pomona Tritrichomonas fetus Rotavirus Coronavirus Campylobacter (vibrio) Pasteurella haemolytica Pasteurella multocida Brucella abortus Other Available Vaccines Clostridial diseases Moraxella bovis Fusobacterium necrophorum Staph aureus (mastitis) Haemophilus somnus Rabies Tetanus Bacillus anthracis Enterotoxigenic E. coli Anaplasma Other Leptospira spp. Laboratory Management and Husbandry Laboratory Management and Husbandry Stress reduction in transportation, handling, and husbandry practices Floor – prevent slippage & support wt. Feeders conformed to species Continuous-access waterers Social and herding animals need to be in eyesight and hearing of other animals Single housed animals should have regular human contact Environmental enrichment governed by SOP, protocol, and IACUC Light cycle – close to natural conditions Light intensity – around 220 lux Unique BiologyRuminants Three compartment forestomach Rumen, reticulum, omasum Rumen Anaerobic fermentation chamber bacteria & protozoa Cellulase & other enzymes Produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) – main source of energy Acetic, propionic, butyric Unique BiologyRuminants VFA absorbed in large intestine Unlike monogastrics Microorganisms also synthesizes vitamins B, K and provide protein Gases produced and eructated CO2, Methane, Nitrogen Spiral Colon No upper incisors Unique BiologyRuminants Immunoglobulins absorbed by pinocytosis in neonates and crucial to passive transfer Functional for the first 36 hours after parturition Neonatal ruminants are immunocompetent Unique BiologyRuminants Ruminants have fewer neutrophils then lymphocytes BUN cannot be used as indicator of renal function due to metabolism of urea by rumen microorganisms Can go several days w/o water before dehydration occurs b/c _____________ Urine Ph is generally alkaline in adults Unique BiologyRuminants Erythrocytes are smaller than other mammals Hematocrits tend to be over estimated unless spun longer Increased RBC fragility Limited rouleaux formation - none in cattle; limited in sheep and goats Sheep reported to have at least 6 different types of hemoglobin (in addition to fetal hemoglobin) Unique BiologyRuminants Caprine erythrocytes More frail in Pygmy and Toggenburg Lack central pallor Flat and lack bioconcavity May exhibit poikilocytosis 5 Blood groups (B, C, M, R-O, and X) Cross matching advisable but not practical Blood loss of up to 25% red cell mass well tolerated by goats (withdrawals of 10ml/kg BW safe) Basic NutritionRuminant Commercial feeds, pasture, hay, concentrates Sheep & Cattle: Grazers Goats: Browsers Can be very selective, eating only leafy parts; waste hay Tend to eat grasses, seeds, nuts, fruits, and woody stemmed plants Do not tolerate finely ground concentrates Do not prefer “sweet” feeds (except our “fat” goats) Make nutrition changes slowly Basic NutritionRuminants Ration high in Ca or Phos or elevated Mg may induce urinary calculi in male ruminants May also occur in grasses or pastures high in silicates and oxalates Newborns Passive immunity form colostrum (mostly IgG) usually w/in 3 hrs of birth Trypsin inhibitors allow passage of intact immunoglobulin Colostrum dependent on herd management practices (vaccinations, nutrition, parasite control) ReproductionSheep Seasonally polyestrous Breed fall/winter; lamb in spring Puberty: 7-8 months Estrus cycle: 17 days Estrus duration: 24-30 hours Ovulate spontaneously @ end Gestation 147-150 days Prolificacy varies greatly with breed Epitheliochorial placentation ReproductionGoats Seasonally polyestrous Short day breeders Puberty: 7-10 months Estrus cycle: 18-24 days Estrus duration: 24-96 hours Ovulate late in estrus Gestation: 145-155 days Does bear singletons, twins, & triplets & kid only once per year Epitheliochorial placentation Pseudopregnancy common ReproductionCattle Polyestrous Puberty 10-12 months (dairy) 11-15 months (beef) Estrus cycle: 21 days Estrus duration: 6-24 hours (avg 12-16) Ovulation: 24-32 hrs after estrus Gestation 270-292 days Epitheliochorial placentation ReproductionRuminants Weaning Sheep: 4-8 weeks (usually 6-8 wks) Goats: 6-10 weeks Cattle 4-7 wks (dairy) 7 months (beef) – beef cows tend to stay with their mother cows until weaning BehaviorSigns of stress Excessive vocalizations Bruxism Decreased appetite Decreased cud chewing Restlessness Prolonged recumbency with out stretched neck and head Hunched appearance when standing Limb favoring Rough dull hair coats Behavior Sheep Easily scared – move slowly and gently Goats Orally investigative May readily chew through wooden gates or fencing May make sneezing noises to confront unfamiliar intruders Cattle Dairy=docile; Beef=not Calves: non-nutritive suckling DiseasesBacterial Actinobacillosis (“Wooden Tongue”) Agent: Actinobacillus lignieresii Animals: Cattle & Sheep Organism penetrates wounds Diffuse abscesses/granulomas in tissues of head Tongue lesions more common in cattle Lip lesions more common in sheep Soft-tissue/LN swelling with draining tracts Treatment Softer feeds Antibiotics: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, ampicillin DiseasesBacterial Arcanobacterium Arcanobacterium bovis – Lumpy Jaw Normal flora; enters through wounds/abrasions Causes firm, non-painful, immovable mandibular mass; fistulas may develop Tx: pennicillin (or derivatives); sodium iodides (IV); potassium iodides (orally) Poor prognosis Arcanobacterium pyogenes (actinomycosis) Omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, omphalitis, navel ill DiseasesBacterial Anthrax Agent: Bacillus anthracis Animals: sheep, cattle, goats Transmission: abrupt climate changes lead to spore release; spores ingested by grazing animals (sheep & cattle more than goats) Clinical signs: swelling around shoulders, ventral neck, and thorax; bloody secretions; death Prevention: vaccination with Sterne-strain spore vaccine Zoonotic DiseasesBacterial Brucellosis (Bang’s Disease) Agents: Brucella melitensis – 1o in sheep & goats Brucella abortus – 1o in cattle Brucella ovis Transmission: ingestion of infected tissues (milk, vaginal/uterine discharges) Signs: abortions, hygromas, swollen scrotum Treatment: cull and slaughter Vaccination: Rev 1 (sheep) – not available in the U.S. Strain 19 (cattle) – public health risk (undulant fever) RB51 – official calfhood vaccine Zoonotic (B. melitensis is leading cause of human brucellosis) DiseasesBacterial Campylobacteriosis (Vibriosis) Agent: Campylobacter fetus Subsp. intestinalis – most important cause of ovine abortion in the U.S. Transmission: GI tract  Blood Stream; NOT venereal Causes abortions (last trimester), stillbirths, weak lambs Subsp. venerealis – cattle only Transmission: venereal Signs: high % return to estrus after breeding; abortions Prevention: bacterin Treatment: Sheep: penicillin, oral chlortetracycline Cattle: intrauterine penicillin Zoonotic DiseasesBacterial Clostridial Infections C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck) Common in sheep, goats, and cattle Causes fatal hemorrhagic enterocolitis, enterotoxemia C. perfringens type D (Pulpy Kidney Disease) Disease of sheep sudden death C. chauvoei - Blackleg C. septicum - Malignant Edema C. novyi - Big Head, Black Disease C. hemolyticum – bacillary hemoglobinuria, “redwater” C. tetani - Tetanus DiseasesBacterial Clostridial Infections Source: ubiquitous in environment; GI tract; contaminated feeds Transmission: ingestion; contamination of wounds Prevention: vaccinate (multivalent vaccine available) Treatment: usually futile antibiotics supportive antitoxin for tetanus Diseases Caseous Lymphadenitis Common, chronic contagious infection of lymph nodes of sheep and goats Cause: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Prevention: reject animals with lymphadenopathy or wounds Treatment: antibiotics, lance and drain abscesses, cull animals DiseasesBacterial Corynebacterium renale group C. renale Normal inhabitant of bovine genitourinary tract acute pyelonephritis in cattle results from ascending infection following a compromise of protective mechanisms Tx: penicillin (3 weeks) C. pilosum & C. cystitidis Normal inhabitants of prepuce of sheep and goats Posthitis (pizzle rot) and vulvovaginitis high-protein diets increase urinary pH; ammonia irritates prepucial and vulvar skin, increasing vulnerability Tx: decrease dietary protein DiseasesBacterial Foot Rot of Sheep and Goats Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum (normal inhabitant) and Dichelobacter nodosus (environmental contaminant) Most common cause of lameness in sheep Prevention maintain dry, clean environment reject clinical cases at delivery vaccinate Treatment foot baths - 10% formalin or 10% zinc sulfate or 10% copper sulfate penicillin and streptomycin trim affected tissue DiseasesBacterial Foot Rot of Cattle Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus Signs: Acute lameness, malodor w/ little discharge Prevention maintain dry, clean environment Vaccinate Treatment foot baths – 2.5% formalin or 10% zinc sulfate or 5% copper sulfate penicillin and oxytetracycline trim affected tissue DiseasesBacterial Heel Warts (Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Interdigital Papillomatosis, Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis, Hairy Foot Warts) Cattle only Cause?: Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Dichelobacter nodosus, + poor facility management Lesions of haired digital skin: erect hairs; loss of hair; thickened skin, painful moist plaques (red, gray, or black) Treatment: antibiotics, footbaths, surgical debridement Prevention: as noted for foot rot Diseases Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis (TEME) Agent: Haemophilus somnus (also involved in BRD complex) Signs: depression, ataxia, falling, conscious proprioceptive deficits, death within 36 hours Transmission: respiratory secretions Vaccination for viral respiratory pathogens may predispose Prevention: avoid vaccinating for for IBR and BVD during times of stress Treatment: penicillin, oxytetracycline Diseases Mastitis Sheep: Pasteurella hemolytica most common Goats: Staphylococcus epidermidis most common Cattle: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma spp., Salmonella spp. Mastitis is disease of greatest economic impact for dairy cattle DiseasesBacterial Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Agent: Moraxella bovis Cattle only Signs: lacrimation, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctival injection, ulceration More severe in animals infected with IBR or who have recently been vaccinated for IBR (modified-live vacc) Transmission: shed in nasal secretions Fomites, flies, aerosols, direct contact Treatment Topical antibiotics Subconjunctival injections of Pennicillin DiseasesBacterial Tuberculosis Cause: Acid-Fast Bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (sheep, goats, cattle) Mycobacterium avium (sheep, goats) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (goats) Signs: may be asymptomatic dyspnea, coughing, and pneumonia diarrhea, bloat, constipation Prevention: intradermal tuberculin test, cull and slaughter Treatment: None Zoonotic DiseasesBacterial Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) Chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease of adult ruminants Cause: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (acid-fast) Long incubation period Signs: chronic wasting, pasty feces, diarrhea Transmission: direct or indirect contact Prevention: Test and slaughter Treatment: None DiseasesBacterial Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants BRDC in cattle, BRD in calves, “shipping fever” Most economically important disease of beef cattle Combinations of numerous agents Bacterial: Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multicida, Hemophilus somnus, Corynebacterium pyogenes Viral: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar DiseasesBacterial Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants Onset of disease related to stress: Shipping, weaning, weather changes, dietary changes, overcrowding, shearing Signs: nasal discharge, fever, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, depression, death Treatment: Antibiotics: ceftiofur, tilmicosin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, tilosin Anti-inflammatory: Banamine Supportive Care Prevention: reduce stress, precondition, vaccinate DiseasesBacterial Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Cause: Mycoplasma mycoides biotype F38 Signs: severe dyspnea, nasal discharge, cough, and fever High morbidity and mortality Transmission: aerosol Prevention: vaccinate; quarantine Treatment: Tylosin and Oxytetracycline DiseasesBacterial Q-Fever Highly contagious disease of sheep and goats Agent: Coxiella burnetti - rickettsial organism Transmission Ixodid or Argasid ticks Ingestion of infected materials (placenta, milk, urine , feces, nasal secretions) Major cause of late abortion in sheep Usually asymptomatic in cattle and goats Treatment: oxytetracycline Zoonotic (single organism shown to cause disease) DiseasesViral Bluetongue Virus Most common ulcerative disease of sheep in US (less common in goats and cattle) Cause: Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus Transmission: biting midge (Culicoides variipennis) Signs: hemorrhage and ulcers in mouth and nose, cyanosis of the tongue, ulcerations of coronary band, lameness, pneumonia, abortions, diarrhea, death Prevention: modified live virus vaccine Treatment: supportive care Reportable disease (resembles FMD) DiseasesViral Bovine Lymphosarcoma Adult cattle: associated with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) Transmission: inhalation, colostrum, fomites 2 forms Malignant Lymphoma: most common bovine neoplastic disease in the U.S. Leukosis (B-lymphocyte proliferation): rare Young cattle: not associated with BLV Rare Sheep: natural infection has occurred; experimental model Goats: seroconvert to BLV, but do not develop clinical disease DiseasesViral Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Flavivirus) BVD virus is ubiquitous (70-90% of all cattle seropositive) Acute Form (NCP) Affects immunocompetent, but immunologically naïve cattle Signs: diarrhea, fever, leukopenia, oral erosions, oculonasal discharge, hypogalactia In utero infection (NCP) abortions, congenital anomalies, persistently infected calves Mucosal Disease PI animal that becomes infected with a CP strain (mutant) Usually results in death 10% will survive to first calving Real Problem Prevention: Vaccination DiseasesViral Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Most important viral disease of goats Cause: Lentivirus (similar to OPPV) Transmission vertical via colostrum and milk Signs progressive arthritis (six months and older) Carpal joint most common, followed by stifle, hock, and hip neurological symptoms in kids pneumonia (older animals) mastitis (older animals) Prevention: remove kids at birth; test and cull Treatment: None – Infection is lifelong DiseasesViral Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Agent: IBR virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 BHV-1.1 (IBR) BHV-1.2 (IBR-Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis) BHV-1.4 (neurologic disease) Fibronecrotic rhinotracheitis is pathognomonic Signs: gray pustules/plaques on muzzle, nasal discharge, open-mouth breathing, IBR and BVD are the most common causes of bovine abortion Treatment: antibiotics Prevention: vaccinate DiseasesViral Border Disease (Hairy Shaker Disease) Primarily a disease of sheep; Cause: Pestivirus; closely related to BVD virus Transmission: PI animals shed virus in urine, feces, and saliva In Utero infections result in: early embryonic death abortion developmental abnormalities - tremor, hirsutism, hypothyroidism, CNS defects, joint abnormalities Prevention: Vaccinate with killed BVDV vaccine Treatment: supportive care DiseasesViral Contagious Ecthyma (Orf) Viral infection of sheep and goats Cause: parapoxvirus - capable of surviving for years Usually seen in young animals Signs: lesions and scab formation around mouth, nostrils, eyes, non-wooled areas around mammary gland and vulva Most commonly at commissures of mouth Infected lactating ewes may abandon lambs Treatment: supportive Prevention: Vaccinate Disinfect equipment etc. in between use Zoonotic DiseasesViral Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Severe disease primarily of cattle, but all ruminants susceptible Signs Corneal edema starting at limbus and progressing centripetally is nearly pathognomonic Other signs include: oral erosions, purulent nasal discharge, encephalitis, lymphadenopathy, shed horns and hooves, diarrhea, sudden death Transmission Goats and cattle that survive are reservoirs Shed from nasopharynx Direct contact, water troughs, placenta, aerosols, fomites Infection is lifelong DiseasesViral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus (OPPV, Maedi/Visna) Cause: Lentivirus (closely related to CAEV) Signs after long incubation period (up to 2 years) progressive weight loss, pneumonia, lameness, paralysis, mastitis, death Transmission horizontal (aerosol) vertical - in utero and via infected milk and colostrum Prevention: Test and cull Remove lambs from ewes at birth Treatment: none DiseasesViral Pulmonary Adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte) Rare Disease progressive respiratory signs (dyspnea, hyperpnea) and wasting Incubation up to 2 years Cause: Type D retrovirus Transmission: aerosol Treatment: None DiseasesViral Papillomatosis (Warts, Verrucae) Agent: Bovine Papillomavirus (types 1-5) BPV-1 and BPV-2: fibropapilomas on teats, penis, head, neck, dewlap BPV-3: flat warts anywhere on body BPV-4: warts in GI tract BPV-5: small white warts on teats Very common in cattle, less common in sheep and goats Sheep and goats rarely get verrucious type warts which may develop into squamous cell carcinomas Transmission: direct/indirect contact through wounds Treatment: often spontaneously resolve (not BPV-3 and BPV-5); surgical excision; cryosurgery Prevention: commercial vaccine (cattle); autogenous DiseasesViral Pseudorabies (Mad Itch, Aujeszky’s Dz) Primarily a clinical disease of cattle (less frequently in sheep and goats) Signs: abrasions, swelling, pruritis, hyperthermia, vocalize frantically, salivation, neurologic signs Usually fatal Transmission Swine are primary host and reservoir and are usually assymptomatic Oral, intranasal, intradermal, or SQ introduction of virus (including modified-live swine vaccine) No treatment Reportable: nationwide eradication program Diseases Tranmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Caused by prion (nonantigenic replicating proteins) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Incubation period of years Progressive neurological illness Scrapie More common in sheep than goats Affects young animals, but incubation 2-5 years Signs: excitable, tremors of head and neck muscles, uncoordinated movements, “bunny hopping”, severe pruritis, blindness, death within 4-6 weeks Suffolk especially susceptible; Targhee resistant USDA prohibits feeding mammalian proteins to ruminants Reportable DiseasesViral Vesicular Stomatits Agent: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rhabdoviridae) Disease of Cattle; rarely sheep (also horses & swine) Signs: vesicles on oral MM, teats and interdigital spaces, ulcers and erosions; anorexia, salivation Transmission: secretions spread by fomites, human hands, possibly contaminated feed and water, and possible some flying insects (mechanical vectors) Treatment: segregate; topical antibiotics for 2o infections Prevention: vaccine during outbreak Reportable because similarity to FMD Zoonotic – flu-like disease in humans DiseasesViral Viral Diarrhea Diseases 1o young animals Sheep Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses Goats Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses Cattle Rotaviruses – diarrhea is typically distinctive yellow; may become zoonotoic Coronaviruses Parvoviruses Winter Dysentary – diarrhea has distinctive musty sweet odor, light brown and bubbly Prevention: good quality colostrum DiseasesChlamydial Enzootic Abortion Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) Signs: late abortion birth of stillborns birth of weak kids/lambs Transmission direct contact with infectious secretions (placental, fetal, and uterine fluids) Indirect contact with contaminated feed and water Prevention Vaccinate – prevents abortions, but not infection Quarantine - recovered does/ewes usually immune thereafter Treatment - Oxytetracycline Diseases Conjunctivitis-Polyarthritis Syndrome Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (Formerly Chlamydia psittaci) Signs: ocular lesions Most common cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in sheep Conjunctival hyperemia, edema, ulceration, opacity arthritis Lameness in one or all legs Prevention: Quarantine Treatment: Self-limiting: resolves spontaneously in 2-4 weeks Ocular - tetracycline ophthalmic medication Systemic Disease - Oxytetracycline DiseasesParasitic Anaplasmosis Agent: Anaplasma marginale (protozoa) Hemolytic disease of cattle Spread by Dermacentor andersoni and D. occidentalis Tx: oxytetracycline Babesiosis Agent: Babesia bovis and Ba. Bigemina (protozoa) Subclinical infections in cattle Spread by Boophilus ticks Hemolysis  liver and kidney disease Reportable DiseasesParasitic Coccidiosis (protozoa) Causes hemorrhagic diarrhea in ruminants Transmitted via ingestion of sporulated oocysts Treatment Coccidiostats preferable to coccidiocidals because the former allow development of immunity Sulfonamides, amprolium, decoquinate, lasalocid, monensin Cryptosporidiosis (protozoa) Common cause of diarrhea in young ruminants Dx: oocysts in iodine-stained feces; fecal floats without sugar Tx: none - self-limiting Zoonotic DiseasesParasitic Neosporosis Neospora caninum (protozoa) Common cause of bovine abortion (3rd -7th month) Transmission: transplacental; ingesting ooccysts No treatment Definitive host: canine Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa) Major case of abortions in sheep and goats Transmission: ingesting oocysts; transplacental No effective treatment Definitive host: feline Zoonotic DiseasesParasitic Trichomoniasis Agent: Tritrichomonas fetus (protozoa) Signs: infertility, pyometras, abortions Organism does not interfere with conception; embryonic death occurs within 2 months of infection Transmission: venereal Prevention: vaccinate; cull chronically infected bulls Treatment: imidazole effective, but cannot be used in food animals DiseasesParasitic Nematodes Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) Most important internal parasite of sheep and goats Anemia, hypoproteinemia, intermandibular and cervical edema Ostertagia circumcincta (medium stomach worm) Sheep and goats Ostertagia ostertagia (cattle stomach worm) Most pathogenic and costly cattle nematode Dictyocaulus (lungworms) Various respiratory signs in all ruminants Tx: Ivermectin, Levamisole DiseasesParasitic Trematodes Fascioliasis (liver fluke disease) Agents Fasciola hepatica Fascioloides magns Dicrocelium dendriticum Intermediate host: usually a freshwater snail Signs of acute liver disease related to migration of immature flukes through the liver Chronic disease from damage to bile ducts and cholangiohepatitis Predisposes to invasion with Clostridial spp. Necropsy: livers pale and friable =/- migration tunnels Tx: albendazole DiseasesParasites Mites – rare in ruminants in the U.S., but Sarcoptes and Psorergates are reportable Lice Sheep Biting: Damalinia ovis Sucking: Linognathus ovillus, L. pedalis Goats Biting: D. caprae, D. limbatus, D. crassipes Sucking: L. stenopis, L. africanus Cattle Biting: D. bovis Sucking: L. vituli, Solenoptes capillatus, Haematopinuseurysternus, H. quadripertusis Ticks – many Ixodidae and Argasidae species DiseasesParasites Other parasites Nasal bots/head grubs (Oestrus ovis) Screwworm flies (Cochliomyia hominivorax) Reportable Sheep Keds (Melophagus ovinus) DiseasesFungal Dermatophytosis (Ringworm) Common fungal infection of cattle Trichophyton verrucosum is 1o agent Signs: multiple, gray, crusty, circumscribed, hyperkeratotic lesions around head, neck and ears Dx: Dermatophyte Test Media (DTM) Spontaneous recovery 1-4 months Treatment Topical: 2-5% lime-sulfur solution, 3% captan, iodophors, thiabendazole, and 0.5% hypochlorite Systemic: griseofulvin Zoonotic DiseasesGenetic Entropion – sheep and goats Beta-Mannosidosis – goats (Nubian) Lysosomal storage disease Intention tremors, difficulty standing, deaf Congenital Myotonia – goats “fainting goats” – transient spasms of skeletal muscle brought about by visual, tactile, or auditory stimuli Congenital erythropoietic porphyria – cattle Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome –cattle (Holstein) Goiter of Sheep – sheep (Merino) Spider Lamb Syndrome – sheep (Suffollk and Hampshire) Hereditary chondrodysplasia DiseasesMetabolic Abomasal displacement RDA May be complicated by torsion surgical emergency LDA More common Signs: anorexia, decreased cud chewing, decreased ruminal contractions, decreased respiratory rate, increased heart rate Dx: “Pinging” Cause: Gas accumulation causes abomasum to “float” up No exact cause identified Treatment RDA: surgery LDA: surgical or non-surgical correction DiseasesMetabolic Rumen Tympany (Bloat) Frothy bloat - excessive ingestion of highly fermentable carbohydrates Treatment Mineral oil, household detergents, or anti-fermentatives via stomach tube Trocarize rumen Free gas bloat Interference with normal eructation mechanism Esophageal obstruction, vagal nerve paralysis, some CNS conditions Prevention withhold feed for at least 24 hours prior to anesthesia, etc. Treatment pass stomach tube trocarize rumen DiseasesMetabolic Lactic Acidosis (Grain overload) Cause: excessive ingestion of highly fermentable carbohydrates Leads to shift from gram-negative rumen bacterial population to gram-positive Streptococcus and Lactobacillus Lactic acid acidifies the rumen leading to inflammation  ulcers, liver abscesses, laminitis, polioencephalomalacia Prevention: avoid sudden dietary changes avoid over feeding of high carbohydrate diets Treatment: IV fluids magnesium hydroxide intraruminal; Na bicarb IV flush rumen or rumenotomy transfaunation DiseasesMetabolic Traumatic Reticulitis-Reticulopertonitis Also Traumatic Reticulitis-Pericarditis Aka. Hardware disease Cattle, rarely small ruminants Caused by ingestion of sharp metallic objects which drop into the reticulum & penetrates the reticulum; further migrations may lead to penetration of the diaphragm and pericardium Prevention Eliminate sharp objects in food and environment Forestomach magnets DiseasesMetabolic Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis, Twin Lamb Disease) 1o in Sheep and Goats that are overweight or bearing twins Seen in during late gestation or early lactation Signs depression, anorexia, weakness, neurologic signs, fetal death, ketonuria Cause: inadequate glucose production secondary to increased requirements Prevention: increase nutrition Treatment: IV fluids, IV glucose, B vitamins, propylene glycol, induce abortion or c-section Protein Energy Malnutrition in heifer cattle is similar, but generally not associated with overconditioning or twins DiseasesMetabolic Hypocalcemia (Parturient Paresis, Milk Fever) Sheep: overweight ewes during last six weeks of gestation or first few weeks of lactation Signs: muscle tetany, incoordination, paralysis, coma, death Goats: not as common Signs: bloated, weak, unsteady, recumbent Cattle: 24-48 hours before/after parturition Signs: weak, muscle tremors, inability to stand, coma, death Cause: calcium needs exceed body’s uptake of calcium Prevention: Maintain proper nutrition during last trimester appropriate Ca:P ratio limit Ca intake early on Treatment: IV calcium borogluconate, calcium gels & boluses DiseasesMetabolic Urinary Calculi (Obstructive Urolithiasis, Water Belly) Rare in ruminants Urethral blockage male sheep and goats: pizzle male cattle: sigmoid flexure Signs treading, straining, arched back, raised tail, squatting, pizzle may be discolored Type: 1o struvite Prevention diet with 2:1 Ca:P ratio,  dietary roughage and salt, add ammonium chloride to diet Treatment surgical - amputate pizzle, perineal urethrostomy DiseasesMetabolic Copper Intoxication 1o a disease of sheep Acute hemolytic crisis sudden weakness, recumbency, hemoglobinuria, intravascular hemolysis, anemia, icterus, sudden death Cause: chronic ingestion of copper Feeding cattle feeds and concetrates to sheep Copper-containing pesticides Soil additives Prevention: Feed proper ration Treatment ammonium molybdenate, sodium molybdenate, D-penicillamine, transfusion DiseasesMetabolic Selenium/Vitamin E Deficiency (White Muscle Disease) A nutritional muscular dystrophy Two forms Cardiac - seen most often in neonates Respiratory difficulty due to damage of cardiac, diaphragmatic, and intercostal muscles; locomotor disturbances and circulatory failure Skeletal Reluctant to move; painful muscles Cause: Selenium (most common) and/or Vit. E Deficiency Prevention: proper diet; awareness of regional selenium deficiencies Treatment: injectable selenium and/or Vitamin E DiseasesMetabolic Thiamine Deficiency (Polioencephalomalacia) Animals affected: Adult ruminant on high-concentrate diets – most common Ruminants exposed to toxic plants or moldy feed containing thiaminases Ruminants on high-sulfate feeds Signs: bruxism, hyperesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, opisthotonus, seizures, wandering aimlessly, head-pressing, death Prevention: provide enough high quality roughage to prevent overgrowth of thiaminase-producing ruminal flora Treatment: thiamine hydrochloride DiseasesManagement-Related Failure of Passive Transfer Laminitis Photosensitization - 2o (liver dz) most common) Vaginal & Uterine Prolapses Rectal Prolapses Trichobezoars DiseasesNeoplastic Neoplasia and tumors relatively rare in ruminants Sheep Lymphosarcoma/leukemia – results from a virus related to BLV Pulmonary carcinoma (pulmonary adenomatosis) Goats Thymoma Cutaneous papillomas which may progress to SCC Cattle Lymphosarcoma of various organ systems Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) – “cancer eye” Papillomatosis (warts) are common DiseasesMisc. Amyloidosis – cattle Accumulations of amyloid in kidney, liver, adrenal glands, and GI tract associated with chronic inflammatory disease Signs: chronic diarrhea, wt. loss, proteinuria Poor prognosis; no treatment Dental Wear – sheep Associated with dietary contamination with silica, or grazing in sandy environments Sole Abscesses – cattle Fusobacterium necrophorum often involved Diseases Other Important Diseases Rabies – zoonotic, reportable Leptosporosis - zoonotic E. coli - zoonotic Salmonellosis - zoonotic Lyme Disease - zoonotic Tularemia - zoonotic Foot & Mouth Disease – reportable Proliferative Stomatitis - zoonotic Pseudocowpox - zoonotic Recent Literature The Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, in Humans, Dogs, Cattle, and Mice. CM, Vol. 54, No. 4, August 2004 Ovine Model to Evaluate Ovarian Vascularization by Using Contrast-Enhancd Sonography, CM, Vol. 55, No. 2, April 2005 References Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Edition, 2002,pages 519-614. Large Animal Internal Medicine: Diseases of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, 2nd Edition, Smith, 1996. Google Image Searches Questions?


On Sep-13-09 at 06:16:14 PDT, seller added the following information:


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