How can we distinguish Newar painting from Tibetan?
1. Newar style after the 13th century reflected developments in illustrated manuscript painting,which was an earlier tradition, dating from the 11th century; the Newar style changed little until the seventeenth century.
2. One of the special features of Newar Paubha is that the central figure occupies an ornate frame, an elaborate arch or a torana dvara, formed by the head of a garuda or Tsepu or Kirtimukha, a mythical creature of Nepal, holding two snakes. It is surrounded by much smaller subsidiary figures.
3. The profuse use of red color is soften tone that that of the red used by Tibetans.
4. Designs in the aura of the main deity are much simpler than in Tibetan paintings.
5. The background is filled with flowers e designs of flowers kground contain simple designs of flowers and long leaves.
6. The blank spaces in the background contain simple designs of flowers and long leaves.
7. The deities are painted with flowers and creeping plants in early Newar paintings.
8. The inclusion of white flowers, large leaves, mountains, stupas, clouds, temples, and monasteries in background scenes is found in Tibetan compositions, whereas there were no background elements in early Newar paintings.
9. The painted surface is divided into sections. In the larger upper part, the main divinities and their acolytes are depicted, while the lower part is usually smaller in size, and filled with depictions of sponsors or donors. Also, women are graphically separated from men, each appearing on opposite sides of the central divinity or sacrificial fire. This grouping by gender is characteristic of Newar painting.
10. Only after the 17-18 centuries did Nepalese artists begin to paint background scenes.
11. The portrayal of tantric deities’ wrathful expression is more vigorous in Tibetan than in Nepalese paintings.
12. The painters remain anonymous.
13. Mughal and Rajput influences appear only during the 17th century.
14. Curly chinese clouds entered the repertoire of decorative motifs only after the 17th century in Newar paintings.
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