In Part II, the focus is on wine and spirit measures from Scotland. Until 1826, when Imperial Standard was introduced, there were several different capacity standards for liquids throughout the British Isles, which is significant for collectors of measures and mugs. Sometimes, the only clue to dating, and identifying the origin of one of these vessels is its capacity. While many pewter drinking mugs used in pubs carry inscriptions, typically the landlord's name, and the name and location of the pub, this is rarely the case for pewter measures. The reason is that while customers used the mugs, and might steal them, they had little or no access to the measures. So, the best one can hope for usually is that the measure is verified, which marks are extensively documented in Marks and Marking of Weights and Measures of the British Isles by Carl Ricketts. Incidentally, the book also explains the different capacity standards used throughout the British Isles at various times. The rarity and value to collectors of measures is sometimes caused by legislative changes rather than age alone. Thus, the pewter so-called thistle measures from Glasgow dating from the last quarter of the 19th century are extremely rare as they were made illegal c1907. When tilted at the normal angle used to empty a measure, it was found their contents did not empty completely, as the bulbous part of the thistle shaped body witheld some, and the customer got 'short measure'. The next time Inspectors visited the premises, they 'condemned' these measures, and almost all were scrapped. The first photograph shows a rare group of survivors, with capacity and verification marks from the period before they became illegal. The rarity of another form of Scottish measure, the pre-Imperial pot-belly, derives both from its age c1700-80, and limited area of usage in the North East of Scotland. They were made lidded and lidless, and conform to the capacity standard used in much of Scotland for wines and spirits. A lidless half-mutchkin (c7.5 fl oz) is shown below. Almost all Scottish pewter measures have bodies with variations of the pear shape, which collectors tend to describe as 'baluster' when more elongated, and 'bulbous' when rounder and squatter. Up until c1830, the predominant measures from both Edinburgh and Glasgow had flat-lids, and thereafter had dome-lids. Significant and numerous variations in form make these measures interesting, as well as their range of sizes. Edinburgh makers preferred more bulbous bodied types, while in Glasgow they made more of baluster form. The next photographs show groups of Glasgow, and then Edinburgh measures.
Uniquely, Scottish pewterers sometimes had moulds made for the lids of measures, which include their name and other information on the underside. An example is shown below. Most of the Glasgow and some Edinburgh dome-lids have medallions incorporated in the casting of the lid, which indicate the capacity of the measure. This is such a nice feature, and again unique to Scotland. The legislation that introduced Imperial Measure throughout the British Isles allowed the continued use of pre-Imperial capacity measures, provided they were marked to show what they were. As Scottish capacities tended to be almost exact fractions of Imperial measure, one sometimes finds pre-Imperial measures stamped to indicate this. Several variants are known including 'I 3/4 S' (for three-quarters of Imperial Standard) or '4/5 IG' (for four-fifths of Imperial Gallon) or even rarer, to indicate they hold what was known as a 'Glass' measure, of which there were three normal measures: One Glass, Two Glass, and Four Glass. Shown next below are a Glasgow flat-lid marked 'I 3/4 S', with one of only two known measures of its type marked '1/40 IG' (for one-fortieth of Imperial Gallon). Then are two 'Glass' measures, the left hand one is a '2 Glass' and the right a '1 Glass'. The fourth photograph below includes a '1 Glass' flatlid, with two quarter-gill measures, the centre being another rare type, a miniature tappit hen.
Possibly, the tappit hen is the most iconic form of Scottish measure, which continued in use from the 17th century until the end of the 19th century. An amazingly long life for any form of measure. It is possible to find the larger sizes more easily, which include the 'Scots pint', which holds about 60 fl oz, so in Scottish terms is their equivalent to a half-gallon, the 'chopin', and 'mutchkin' which are the next two diminutives in the series. The actual measurement of their capacity is done by filling them up to the 'plouk', which is a blob of solder inside the neck indicating the correct level. The smallest is the Imperial quarter-gill shown above. The tappit hen was made lidded with or without a knop, and during the 19th century unlidded. The ones with knops are known as 'crested', and were produced in a much more limited range of sizes. Examples of both types are shown below. The principal remaining Scottish measure is a lidless form originating from Aberdeen, which is known in several smaller sizes only. Their dating is enigmatic, but probably c1770-1830. They are often found with verification marks struck under the base as well as around the rim.