ROMAN NUMERALS: WHAT'S XIXC XXC MMVII MMIX and MMX ?
PART I. WHAT ARE ROMAN NUMERALS?
PART II. HOW TO DETERMINE WHAT AMOUNT IS REPRESENTED BY A GROUP OF ROMAN NUMERALS.
I. WHAT ARE ROMAN NUMERALS?
When you see the following capital letters in eBay item titles,
do you know what they mean : XIXC XXC MMVII MMIX and MMX ?
These are ROMAN NUMERALS.
The Romans used a system of letters to represent numbers, for example
I is the letter i and this represents the amount ONE.
V is the letter v as in Victory and this represents the amount of FIVE.
I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1000.
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals.
Roman numerals are still commonly used today, in many ways, including but not limited to:
* Names of monarchs and Popes , e.g. Elizabeth II, Benedict XVI.
* The year and, if any, credits shown at the end of a television show or film, especially in the United Kingdom.
* Some faces of clocks and timepieces show hours in Roman numerals.
* Books (particularly older ones) are dated in Roman numerals, and display preliminary pages in Roman numbers. Volume numbers on spines and chapter numbers can also be in Roman numerals.
* Film series and sequels of novels and video games (such as Final Fantasy) are often numbered with Roman numerals, typically done in emulation of older books.
* Outlines use I, II, III and i, ii, iii as part of their organizational structure.
* A recurring grand event, such as the Olympic Games, Super Bowl, WrestleMania, or the Sprint All-Star Race.
* Historic events, such as World War II
* Army Corps are typically named using Roman numerals.
* Roman numerals often appear in crossword puzzles. For example, "DLII" could be the answer to clues such as "Ovid's 552" or "half of MCIV".
* Names of cranial nerves.
* Guitar chord diagrams and in music for chord triads in music analysis,
* Parts of laws, such as Titles (EG. Civil Rights Act of 1964) or Schedules (EG. Controlled Substances Act).
* Sports teams can be referred to as the number of players in the squad with Roman numerals. In rugby union, the 1st XV of a particular club would be the 1st and best team the club has, likewise for the XIII in rugby league, and XI for football (soccer), field hockey and cricket.
Sometimes the numerals are written using lower-case letters (thus: i, ii, iii, iv, etc.),
particularly if numbering paragraphs or sections within chapters, or for the pagination of the front matter of a book.
II. HOW TO DETERMINE WHAT AMOUNT IS REPRESENTED BY A GROUP OF ROMAN NUMERALS.
The ORDER of the letters in the group determines the TOTAL number represented by all the letters in the group.
Any letter representing a SMALLER amount than the letter following it ,
in other words, any letter representing an amount smaller than the letter to the RIGHT of it,
should be SUBTRACTED from the amount represented by the letter following it (left is subtracted from right when right is larger)
For example, I represents one, V represents five, and IV represents FOUR, or five MINUS one.
XL = 40, or L=50 MINUS X=10.
Dates and complex numbers are written as a group of letters,
representing thousands, hundreds, fifties, tens and units, etc.
Thus 1763 in Roman numerals is MDCCLXIII.
1808 is written MDCCCVIII.
235 is written CCXXXV.
56 is written LVI.
XIXC is written in Roman numerals and means 19th Century, meaning the years between 1800 and 1899.
X = 10. So how do you write the number NINE using the letters of Roman numerals?
IX means to subtract I from X, leaving 9.
IX means the letters i and x , and since x is larger, in this order they mean x MINUS i or NINE (9).
Since Romans didn't have a symbol for zero, that numeral placement within a number
can sometimes indicate subtraction rather than addition.
Repeats of any letter indicate MULTIPLICATION of the amount represented by that letter.
X is the letter x and this represents the amount, or quantity, of TEN.
XX represents the amount, or quantity, of TEN PLUS TEN, or 10 + 10 , or TWENTY.
XXX represents the amount, or quantity, of TEN TEN TEN, or 10 + 10 + 10, or 10 x 3, or THIRTY.
III = 3, XX = 20, CC = 200.
Numbers in the teens, twenties and thirties follow the same form as the first set,
only with X's indicating the number of tens.
So XXXI is 31, and XXIV is 24.
XXC indicates the 20th Century, meaning the years between 1900 and 1999.
XXIC indicates the current 21st Century, meaning the years between 2000 and 2999.
C stands for centum, the Latin word for 100.
A centurion led 100 men. We still use this in words like "century" and "cent."
The subtraction rule means 90 is written as XC (C= 100, X= ten, XC means 100 minus 10 = 90).
Like the X's and L's, the C's are tacked on to the beginning of numbers
to indicate how many hundreds and hundreds and hundreds there are:
CCCLXIX is 369.
L means 50.
40 is XL, = 10 subtracted from 50.
And thus 60, 70, and 80 are LX, LXX and LXXX.
M is 1,000. You will see a number of Ms because Roman numerals are still used quite a lot to indicate dates.
2008 is written MMVIII in Roman numerals, and 2009 is written MMIX.
Modern Roman numerals are written by summing up the separate decimal digits,
starting with the left-most digit and skipping any digit with a value of zero.
Thus 1990 is rendered MCMXC: M for the 1000, plus CM for the 900, plus XC for the 90.
2009 is MMIX: MM for 2000 plus IX for 9.
Each of those digits may involve an additive principle, such as VIII (V plus III) for 8, or IX (I less than X) for 9.
We hope this information is helpful to you !
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